East Sikkim district
East Sikkim is one of the four administrative districts of the Indian state of Sikkim. Geographically, East Sikkim occupies the south-east corner of the state, the capital of East Sikkim is Gangtok, which is the state capital. It is the hub of all activity in the state. The civilian region is administered by a collector, appointed by the Union Government. As of 2011 it is the most populous of the four districts of Sikkim, East Sikkim was part of the kingdom of Sikkim for most of its history. In the 19th century, the district was under the rule of the Bhutanese, after the Anglo Bhutan War, the territory was virtually under the command of the British forces. After Indias independence in 1947, the area was part of the kingdom of Sikkim under the protection of India, during the Sino-Indian War of 1962, the Nathula Pass witnessed a few skirmishes between India and China. In 1975, the Sikkim formally became part of the Indian Union as Indias 22nd state. The district was under the occupation of the Nepalese for 30 years in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the district occupies an area of 964 km².
Military-wise, the district is a sensitive area with the Indian army having control over most areas east of Gangtok and near its borders with Peoples Republic of China. Visitors to this region are restricted and just a few areas are open to tourists in the areas east of Gangtok, popular tourist locales are the Tsongmo Lake, Baba Mandir and the Nathu La pass. The pass formed the offshoot of the ancient Silk Road which connected Lhasa to India, the pass and Baba Mandir are open to Indian nationals only. To enter this region a special permit is required, the Inner Line Permit has to be obtained one day prior to departure and this permit is made through local tourist offices. Other tourist areas include the town of Gangtok, the Phodong Monastery north of Gangtok, the district was previously divided into 12 assembly constituencies. This gives it a ranking of 574th in India, the district has a population density of 295 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 14.
79%, East Sikkim has a sex ratio of 872 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 84. 67%. People in East Sikkim are mostly of Nepali ethnicity, arriving in search of jobs after the British appropriated the state in the 19th century, other ethnicities include the Bhutias, the Tibetans and the Lepchas. Nepali is the predominant language in the region, East Sikkim district is home to four wildlife sanctuaries, Barsey Rhododendron, Fambong Lho and Kyongnosla Alpine. East Sikkim is divided into three sub-divisions, Official district government website East Sikkim travel guide from Wikivoyage
It is the national flower of Nepal. Most species have flowers which bloom from late winter through to early summer. Azaleas make up two subgenera of Rhododendron and they are distinguished from true rhododendrons by having only five anthers per flower. Rhododendron is a genus characterised by shrubs and small to large trees, the smallest species growing to 10–100 cm tall, the leaves are spirally arranged, leaf size can range from 1–2 cm to over 50 cm, exceptionally 100 cm in R. sinogrande. They may be evergreen or deciduous. In some species, the undersides of the leaves are covered with scales or hairs, Some of the best known species are noted for their many clusters of large flowers. There are alpine species with flowers and small leaves. Species in this genus may be part of the complex in oak-heath forests in eastern North America. They have frequently been divided based on the presence or absence of scales on the leaf surface. These scales, unique to subgenus Rhododendron, are modified hairs consisting of a scale attached by a stalk.
The Rhododendron genus is the largest of the genera in the Ericaceae family, with 1,024 species, though estimates vary from 850-1000 depending on the authority used, the taxonomy has been historically complex. He listed five species under Rhododendron, at that time he considered the known six species of Azalea that he had described earlier in 1735 in his Systema Naturae as a separate genus. Linnaeus six species of Azalea were Azalea indica, A. pontica, A. lutea, A. viscosa, A. lapponica and A. procumbens, which he distinguished from Rhododendron by having five stamens, as opposed to ten. As new species of what are now considered Rhododendron were discovered, for instance Rhodora for Rhododendron canadense and Hymenanthes for Rhododendron metternichii, now R. degronianum. Of these Tsutsutsi, Pogonanthum and Rhodora are still used, the sections being Lepipherum, Booram. Soon, as species became available in the nineteenth century so did a better understanding of the characteristics necessary for the major divisions.
Chief amongst these were Maximoviczs Rhododendreae Asiae Orientali and Planchon, maximovicz used flower bud position and its relationship with leaf buds to create eight Sections. Bentham and Hooker used a scheme, but called the divisions Series
The Teesta River is a 309 km long river flowing through the Indian state of Sikkim. It carves out from the verdant Himalayas in temperate and tropical river valleys and it flows through the cities of Rangpo and Kalimpong and joins the Jamuna in Bangladesh. It drains an area of 12,540 km2, the Teesta River originates from the Pahunri glacier above 7,068 metres, and flows southward through gorges and rapids in the Sikkim Himalaya. It is fed by rivulets arising in the Thangu, the river flows past the town of Rangpo where the Rangpo River joins, and where it forms the border between Sikkim and West Bengal up to Teesta Bazaar. Just before the Teesta Bridge, where the roads from Kalimpong and Darjeeling join, the river is met by its main tributary, at this point, it changes course southwards flowing into West Bengal. The river hits the plains at Sevoke,22 kilometres northeast of Siliguri, the river goes merging up with the Brahmaputra River after it bifurcates the city of Jalpaiguri and flows just touching Cooch Behar district at Mekhliganj and moves to Fulchori in Bangladesh.
Through its course, the Teesta river has carved out ravines and gorges in Sikkim meandering through the hills with the station of Kalimpong lying just off the river. Variegated vegetation can be seen along this route, at lower elevations, tropical deciduous trees and shrubs cover the surrounding hills, alpine vegetation is seen at the upper altitudes. The river is flanked by sand which is used by the construction industry in the region. Large boulders in and around the waters make it ideal for rafting enthusiasts, between Rangpo town and the railway bridge on it as it enters the plains at Sevoke, the Teesta flows with a very strong current, ideal for white river rafting. Towns like Teesta Bazaar and Melli have facilities for group rafting, though the river looks innocuous, the underlying current is very strong. Robertson, the Municipal Engineer of Darjeeling, drowned after losing control of the boat in the turbulence while surveying the river, the boat struck a partially hidden boulder and was sucked in by a whirlpool, leaving no trace of the occupants.
During the monsoons, Teesta river distends its banks, both in size and turbulence, landslides in this region often dam up parts of the river in this season. Great changes have taken place in the course of some of the rivers in Bengal, although positive evidence is lacking, similar changes can be assumed in the remoter past. The Teesta River is one of the rivers that has changed over the years, the Teesta earlier ran due south from Jalpaiguri in three channels, the Karatoya to the east, the Punarbhaba in the west and the Atrai in the centre. The three channels possibly gave the name to the river as Trisrota possessed of three streams which has shortened to Teesta. Of these three, the Punarbhaba joined the Mahananda, the Atrai passing through a vast marshy area known as Chalan Beel joined the Karatoya and the united stream joined the Padma near Jafarganj. In the destructive floods of 1787, the Teesta river forsook its old channel, james Rennell made a survey between 1764 and 1777 and his maps are one of the earliest authentic maps of Bengal in existence
Valley of Flowers (film)
The film has been inspired from Alexandra David-Néels work Magie damour et magic noire. A gang of bandits with their leader Jalan who have chosen to live an independent life free from oppression amid the wilderness live by plundering the travelers of the Silk Route of their merchandise and they have their own rules and sense of self-righteousness. While divesting victims of their valuables one day, they come across a mask which intrigues Jalan. Jalan, in spite of his companions warnings includes the woman in their band as he is mesmerized by her unearthly beauty and mysterious. Ushna knows a great deal more than the bandits about the landscape and strategic points and she proves to be an excellent horse rider, riding alongside Jalan, claims to have seen the ocean, which is unseen and a subject of myth to the men. She apparently does not have a navel which Jalan calls The Centre of the Universe, Jalan grows increasingly dependent upon her, their love and passion ascending unscalable heights.
Madly in love, they decide to find out what future has in store for them and visit an astrologer and they explore too far into stealing things which they have no right to and which are not theirs and divest a meditating Yogi of his power of Levitation. Jalan and Ushna unite making use of their newly acquired power and this enrages Jalan who accidentally kills Jampa La in the fracas between the two which results in a final split of Jalan and Ushna with the rest, with Hak Chi rebuking Jalan as they part ways. Meanwhile, the merchants and travelers, seek the help of Yeti, a wise man. Yeti seems to recognize Ushna at once from the description given by the victims and Jalan make a narrow escape, until finally they are outsmarted by Yeti and his men. Ushna manages to escape on horseback and Jalan falls into the river, Yeti is confronted by Ushna in his tent who questions him of Jalans whereabouts. Yeti advises her to go back to where she came from as she can never unite with Jalan because of what she is, after this short separation, Ushna succeeds in finding Jalan at a monastery recovering from his wounds.
The two set off for another monastery Jalan has heard of during his stay at the former one, Ushna is a bit reluctant and wishes to spend their lives in their natural spans together at the Valley of Flowers, where nobody could separate them. They however manage to steal the Elixir and consume it, preserving some for days to come, Jalan is rebuked by Yeti for having tampered with things they ought not have. Now bereaved from his soulmate, Jalan is doomed to a life of immortality. Then follows a transition of two centuries into the times in Tokyo. In Japan, Jalan goes by the identity Jalan Otsal, the controversial Indian doctor who is a practitioner of euthanasia. He is despised by the people of the city and is stalked everywhere by protesters demanding him to leave Japan, Jalan creates news again by jumping from the 62-storey and yet surviving without even a scar, which is telecast live in the local news channels
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire.
The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River.
The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety
Iris is a genus of about 260–300, species of flowering plants with showy flowers. It takes its name from the Greek word for a rainbow, some authors state that the name refers to the wide variety of flower colors found among the many species. As well as being the name, iris is very widely used as a common name for all Iris species. A common name for some species is flags, while the plants of the subgenus Scorpiris are widely known as junos and it is a popular garden flower. The often-segregated, monotypic genera Belamcanda and Pardanthopsis are currently included in Iris, Iris is the national flower of Croatia. Irises are perennial plants, growing from creeping rhizomes or, in drier climates and they have long, erect flowering stems which may be simple or branched, solid or hollow, and flattened or have a circular cross-section. The rhizomatous species usually have 3–10 basal sword-shaped leaves growing in dense clumps, the bulbous species have cylindrical, basal leaves. The inflorescences are in the shape of a fan and contain one or more symmetrical six-lobed flowers and these grow on a pedicel or peduncle.
The three sepals, which are usually spreading or droop downwards, are referred to as falls and they expand from their narrow base, into a broader expanded portion and can be adorned with veining, lines or dots. In the centre of the blade, some of the rhizomatous irises have a beard, the three, sometimes reduced, petals stand upright, partly behind the sepal bases. Some smaller iris species have all six lobes pointing straight outwards and they are united at their base into a floral tube that lies above the ovary. The styles divide towards the apex into petaloid branches, this is significant in pollination, the iris flower is of interest as an example of the relation between flowering plants and pollinating insects. The iris fruit is a capsule which opens up in three parts to reveal the seeds within. In some species, the bear a aril. Iris is the largest genus of the family Iridaceae with up to 300 species – many of natural hybrids. Modern classifications, starting with Dykes, have subdivided them, Dykes referred to the major subgroupings as sections.
Subsequent authors such as Lawrence and Rodionenko have generally called them subgenera, while essentially retaining Dykes groupings, of these, section Limneris was further divided into sixteen series. Rodionenko reduced the number of sections in subgenus Iris, from six to two, depending on the presence or absence of arils on the seeds, referred to as arilate or nonarilate, taylor provides arguments for not including all arilate species in Hexapogon
Sikkim Legislative Assembly
The Sikkim Legislative Assembly is the unicameral state legislature of Sikkim state in north-eastern India. The seat of the Legislative Assembly is at Gangtok, the capital of the state, as of 2014, the assembly has been constituted seven times. There are 32 members in a legislative assembly, there are two seats reserved for scheduled castes,12 for scheduled tribes out of 32 seats. One Sangha seat is reserved for 2900 monks of over 100 monasteries, the seventh assembly was elected in 2014. The current members of assembly are listed below
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water together, usually refers to the joining of tributaries. The opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from, distributaries are most often found in river deltas. Right tributary and left tributary are terms stating the orientation of the relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream, where tributaries have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks. These are typically designated by compass direction, for example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks. The Chicago Rivers North Branch has the East and Middle Fork, the South Branch has its South Fork, forks are sometimes designated as right or left.
Here, the handedness is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream, for instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary which is called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river, the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being typically the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary, another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The Himalayan range has the Earths highest peaks, including the highest, the Himalayas include over a hundred mountains exceeding 7,200 metres in elevation. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia – Aconcagua, in the Andes – is 6,961 metres tall. The Himalayas are spread across five countries, India, China, the Himalayan range is bordered on the northwest by the Karakoram and Hindu Kush ranges, on the north by the Tibetan Plateau, and on the south by the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Some of the major rivers, the Indus, the Ganges, and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, rise in the Himalayas. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of South Asia, many Himalayan peaks are sacred in Hinduism and Buddhism. Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate and its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus river.
Its eastern anchor, Namcha Barwa, is just west of the bend of the Tsangpo river. The range varies in width from 400 kilometres in the west to 150 kilometres in the east, the name of the range derives from the Sanskrit Himā-laya, from himá and ā-laya. They are now known as the Himalaya Mountains, usually shortened to the Himalayas, they were described in the singular as the Himalaya. This was previously transcribed Himmaleh, as in Emily Dickinsons poetry and Henry David Thoreaus essays. The mountains are known as the Himālaya in Nepali and Hindi, the Himalaya or The Land of Snow in Tibetan, the Hamaleh Mountain Range in Urdu, the flora and fauna of the Himalayas vary with climate, rainfall and soils. The climate ranges from tropical at the base of the mountains to permanent ice, the amount of yearly rainfall increases from west to east along the southern front of the range. This diversity of altitude and soil conditions combined with the high snow line supports a variety of distinct plant. The extremes of high altitude combined with extreme cold favor extremophile organisms, the unique floral and faunal wealth of the Himalayas is undergoing structural and compositional changes due to climate change.
The increase in temperature is shifting various species to higher elevations, the oak forest is being invaded by pine forests in the Garhwal Himalayan region. There are reports of early flowering and fruiting in some species, especially rhododendron, apple. The highest known tree species in the Himalayas is Juniperus tibetica located at 4,900 metres in Southeastern Tibet, the Himalayan range is one of the youngest mountain ranges on the planet and consists mostly of uplifted sedimentary and metamorphic rock
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising twenty-nine states and seven union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and further into smaller administrative divisions, the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by different ethnic groups throughout its history. Between 1947 and 1950, the territories of the states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, the new republic was declared to be a Union of States. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal. The eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of states, governed by a rajpramukh, who was usually the ruler of a constituent state. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India, the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin.
The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners provinces and some states, and each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India. The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, the only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government. The Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Yanam, Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State. The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states, as a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to from Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956, kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union respectively and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963, the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a territory and the shared capital of Punjab
Primula /ˈprɪmjʊlə/ is a genus of mainly herbaceous flowering plants in the family Primulaceae. They include the familiar wildflower of banks and verges, the primrose, other common species are P. auricula, P. veris and P. elatior. These species and many others are valued for their ornamental flowers and they have been extensively cultivated and hybridised - in the case of the primrose, for many hundreds of years. Primula are native to the northern hemisphere, south into tropical mountains in Ethiopia and New Guinea. Almost half of the species are from the Himalayas. Primula has about 500 species in traditional treatments, and more if certain related genera are included within its circumscription, Primula is a complex and varied genus, with a range of habitats from alpine slopes to boggy meadows. Some species show a white mealy bloom on various parts of the plant, many species are adapted to alpine climates. The word primula is the Latin feminine diminutive of primus, meaning first, Primula species have been extensively cultivated and hybridised, mainly derived from P. elatior, P. juliae, P. veris and P. vulgaris.
Polyanthus is one group of plants, which has produced a large variety of strains in all colours, usually grown as annuals. The classification of the genus Primula has been investigated by botanists for over a century, as the genus is both large and diverse, botanists have organized the species in various sub-generic groups. The most common is division into a series of thirty sections, some of these sections contain many species, others contain only one
Valley of Flowers National Park
Valley of Flowers National Park is an Indian national park, located in West Himalaya, in the state of Uttarakhand and is known for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and the variety of flora. This richly diverse area is home to rare and endangered animals, including the Asiatic black bear, snow leopard, musk deer, brown bear, red fox. Birds found in the park include Himalayan monal pheasant and other high altitude birds, at 3352 to 3658 meters above sea level, the gentle landscape of the Valley of Flowers National Park complements the rugged mountain wilderness of Nanda Devi National Park to the east. Together, they encompass a transition zone between the mountain ranges of the Zanskar and Great Himalaya. The park stretches over an expanse of 87.50 km2, both parks are encompassed in the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve which is further surrounded by a buffer zone. This Reserve is in the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves since 2004, the Valley of Flowers is a high-altitude Himalayan valley that has long been acknowledged by renowned mountaineers, and in literature.
It has been recognized internationally for over a century and is referenced in the Hindu religion, local people have visited the valley since ancient times. Indian yogis are known to have visited the valley for meditation, the Valley of Flowers has many different colourful flowers, taking on various shades of colours as time progressed. The valley was declared a park in 1982 and now it is a World Heritage Site. The Valley of Flowers has gained importance as a region containing a diversity of flora, representative of the Western Himalayan alpine shrub. A number of plant species are considered threatened, several have not been recorded outside of Uttarakhand. Two have not been recorded in Nanda Devi National Park, the diversity of threatened species of medicinal plants is higher than has been recorded in other Indian Himalayan protected areas. The entire Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve lies within the Western Himalayas Endemic Bird Area, the Valley of Flowers National Park is the second core zone of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve.
Seven restricted-range bird species are endemic to this part of the EBA, Uttarakhand, India District, Chamoli Nearest town, after Joshimath The Valley of Flowers is nestled in the upper expanses of Bhyundar Ganga near Joshimath in Gharwal region. The lower reaches of Bhyundar Ganga near Gobindghat are known as Bhyundar Valley, the Valley of Flowers is in the Pushpawati valley 23 km north-northwest of Nanda Devi Park, It lies between 30°41 to 30° 48N and 79°33 to 79° 46E. The Valley is 20 km northwest of Nanda Devi National Park across the valley of the Bhyundar Ganga. It is one of two hanging valleys lying at the head of the Bhyundar valley, the other being the shorter Hemkund valley which runs parallel some 10 km south. It runs east-west approximately 15 km by an average of 6 km wide, in the basin of the Pushpawati river, the area lies on the Zanskar range of the Himalayas with the highest point in the national park being Gauri parbat at 6,719 m above sea level