Provincial Reconstruction Team Zabul
Provincial Reconstruction Team Zabul was a civil-military unit tasked to assist the government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan deliver government and security in the southern province of Zabul. Along with the military component, the PRT includes civilians from the Dept. of State, USAID and Dept. of Agriculture. The team had 100 personnel; the commander for PRT Zabul was an Air Force Lieutenant Colonel, but shared mission planning with the Dept. of State senior official in the province. The team was composed of half half Air Force Airmen. Soldiers served as the security force, civil affairs teams and other staff positions like Director of Operations and Logistics Officer. Airmen on the team served in multiple capacities including command post, intelligence, public affairs/information operations, vehicle maintenance, personnel, perimeter security advisors and personal security detail. A typical day would include a convoy movement or air movement to a construction site to assess progress.
During the same day, a movement to a government office or with Afghan officials to outlying villages occurred to advise and build government capacity. Each team would go through 2.5 months of training at Camp Atterbury, Indiana to prepare for the deployment. During the training, members of the team learned small and large movement operations, medical training, advising training, other skills needed to operate outside the wire in Afghanistan; the Zabul PRT was headquartered in the province's capital, Zabul, next to the Provincial Governor's offices. The compound was 5 acres and had a helipad; the compound was turned over to Afghan forces. Conduct civil-military operations in Zabul Province to extend the reach and legitimacy of the Government of Afghanistan by: Promoting good governance and justice Facilitating reconstruction and economic growth by developing projects on the leading edge of the Afghan National Development Strategy Supporting and enabling an effective Afghan security apparatus Coordinating Consequence Management Operations with the Government of Afghanistan, Afghan National Security Forces and the International Security Assistance Force.
Afghanistan International Security Assistance Force NATO Provincial Reconstruction Team Qalat, Zabul Media related to Provincial Reconstruction Team Zabul at Wikimedia Commons PRT Zabul Facebook Page ISAF
Afghan National Army
The Afghan National Army is the land warfare branch of the Afghan Armed Forces. It is under the Ministry of Defense in Kabul and is trained by US-led NATO forces; the ANA is divided into six corps, with the 201st in Kabul followed by the 203rd in Gardez, 205th in Kandahar, 207th in Herat, 209th in Mazar-i-Sharif and the 215th in Lashkar Gah. The current Chief of Staff of the ANA is Lieutenant General Mohammad Sharif Yaftali; the Afghan National Army traces its roots to the early 18th century when the Hotak dynasty was established in Kandahar followed by Ahmad Shah Durrani's rise to power. It was reorganized in 1880 during Emir Abdur Rahman Khan's reign. Afghanistan remained neutral during the Second World Wars. From the 1960s to the early 1990s, the Afghan Army was equipped by the Soviet Union. After the resignation of President Najibullah in 1992, the Islamic State of Afghanistan took control of the Army; that government was driven from power in 1996 by the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, which lasted until late 2001 when NATO invaded the country.
By 2014, most of Afghanistan came under government control with NATO playing a supporting role. The majority of training of the ANA is undertaken in the Afghan National Security University. In 2017, the ANA had 175,000 soldiers out of an authorized strength of 195,000. Afghans have served in the army of the Ghaznavids, Delhi Sultanate, the Mughals; the Afghan National Army traces its origin to the early 18th century when the Hotak dynasty rose to power in Kandahar and defeated the Persian Safavid Empire at the Battle of Gulnabad in 1722. When Ahmad Shah Durrani formed the Durrani Empire in 1747, the Afghan Army fought a number of battles in the Punjab region of India during the 19th century. One of the famous battles was the 1761 Battle of Panipat in which the Afghan army decisively defeated the Hindu Maratha Empire; the Afghans fought with the Sikh Empire, until the Sikh Marshal Hari Singh Nalwa died and Sikh conquests stopped. In 1842, the British unsuccessfully tried to conquer Afghanistan, resulting in the 1842 retreat from Kabul.
At the outbreak of the Second Anglo-Afghan War, Ali Ahmad Jalali cites sources saying that the regular army was about 50,000 strong and consisted of 62 infantry and 16 cavalry regiments, with 324 guns organized in horse and mountain artillery batteries. Sedra cites Jalali, who writes that'..although Amir Shir Ali Khan is credited for founding the modern Afghan Army, it was only under Abdur Rahman that it became a viable and effective institution.' In 1880 Amir Abdur Rahman Khan established a newly equipped Afghan Army with help from the British. The Library of Congress Country Study for Afghanistan states: When came to the throne, the army was nonexistent. With the assistance of a liberal financial loan from the British, plus their aid in the form of weapons and other military supplies, he began a 20-year task of creating a respectable regular force by instituting measures that formed the long-term basis of the military system; these included increasing the equalization of military obligation by setting up a system known as the hasht nafari.
Further improvements to the Army were made by King Amanullah Khan in the early 20th century just before the Third Anglo-Afghan War. King Amanullah fought against the British in 1919, resulting in Afghanistan becoming independent after the Treaty of Rawalpindi was signed, it appears from reports of Naib Sular Abdur Rahim's career that a Cavalry Division was in existence in the 1920s, with him being posted to the division in Herat Province in 1913 and Mazar-i-Sharif after 1927. The Afghan Army was expanded during King Zahir Shah's reign, starting in 1933. In 1953, Lieutenant General Mohammed Daoud, cousin of the King who had served as Minister of Defence, was transferred from command of the Central Corps in Kabul to become Prime Minister of Afghanistan. Periodic border clashes with Pakistan seem to have taken place between 1950 and 1961. From 1949 to 1961, Afghanistan-Pakistan skirmishes took place along the frontier, culminating in fighting in Bajaur Agency in September 1960; this led to a breakoff in diplomatic relations between the two countries in September 1961.
From the 1960s to the early 1990s, the Afghan Army received training and equipment from the Soviet Union. In February - March 1957, the first group of Soviet military specialists was sent to Kabul to train Afghan officers and non-commissioned officers. At the time, there seems to have been significant Turkish influence in the Afghan Armed Forces, which waned after the Soviet advisors arrived. In the early 1970s, Soviet military assistance was increased; the number of Soviet military specialists increased from 1,500 in 1973 to 5,000 by April 1978. The senior Soviet specialist at this time was a Major General I. S. Bondarets, from 1975 to 1978, the senior Soviet military adviser was Major General L. N. Gorelov. Before the 1978 Saur Revolution, according to military analyst George Jacobs, the Army included "some three armored divisions, eight infantry divisions (averaging
Demographics of Afghanistan
The population of Afghanistan is around 33 million as of 2016, which includes the 3 million Afghan citizens living as refugees in both Pakistan and Iran. The nation is composed of a multi-ethnic and multilingual society, reflecting its location astride historic trade and invasion routes between Central Asia, Southern Asia, Western Asia, its largest ethnic group is the Pashtun, followed by Tajik, Uzbek, Turkmen, Baloch and a few others. 46% of the population is under 15 years of age, 74% of all Afghans live in rural areas. The average woman gives birth to five children during her entire life and 6.8% of all babies die in child-birth or infancy. Life expectancy was reported in 2015 at 60.5 years and only 0.04% of the population has HIV. Pashto and Dari are both the official languages of the country. Dari, known as the Afghan Persian, functions as the lingua franca. Pashto is used in the region south of the Hindu Kush mountains and the Indus River in neighboring Pakistan. Uzbek and Turkmen are smaller languages spoken in parts of the north.
Multilingualism is common throughout the country in the major cities. Islam is the religion of more than 99% of Afghanistan's citizens. 90% of the population practice Sunni Islam and belong to the Hanafi Islamic law school, while 7–15% are followers of Shia Islam. The remaining 1 % or less practice other religions such as Hinduism. Excluding urban populations in the principal cities, most People are organized into tribal and other kinship-based groups, who follow their own traditional customs, for instance Pashtuns Pashtunwali; the majority of the country's population lives in rural areas and is involved in agricultural activities. As of 2016, the total population of Afghanistan is around 33,332,025, which includes the 3 million Afghan nationals living in both Pakistan and Iran. Afghanistan's Central Statistics Organization stated in 2011 that the total number of Afghans living inside Afghanistan was about 26 million and by 2017 it reached 29.2 million. Of this, 15 million are males and 14.2 million are females.
About 22% of the population is urbanite and the remaining 78% live in rural areas. The population was reported in 1979 at about 15.5 million. From 1979 until the end of 1983, some 5 million people left the country to take shelter in neighboring northwestern Pakistan and eastern Iran; this exodus was unchecked by any government. The Afghan government in 1983 reported a population of 15.96 million, which included the exodus. It is assumed that 600,000 to as high as 2 million Afghans may have been killed during the various 1979–2001 wars; these figures are questionable and no attempt has been made to verify them. The country's population is expected to reach 82 million by 2050. Urban areas have experienced rapid population growth in the last decade, due to the return of over 5 million expats; the only city in Afghanistan with over a million residents is Kabul. The other largest cities in the country are shown in the chart below. 0–14 years: 42.3% 15–64 years: 55.3% 65 years and over: 2.4% In 1979, the population was reported to be about 15.5 million.
2.32% country comparison to the world: 39 urbanization population: 24% of the total population rate of urbanization: 5.4% annual rate of change at birth: 1.05 male/female under 15 years: 1.05 male/female 15–64 years: 1.05 male/female 65 years and over: 0.93 male/female total population: 1.05 male/female Total Fertility Rate and Crude Birth Rate: Structure of the population: total population: 60.5 years country comparison to the world: 214 male: 59.3 years female: 61.9 years Source: UN World Population Prospects Definition: People over the age of 15 that can read and write Total population: 38.2% Male: 52% Female: 24.2% total: 11 years male: 13 years female: 8 years 0.04% Up to 6,900 In 2008, health officials in Afghanistan reported 504 cases of people living with HIV but by the end of 2012 the numbers reached 1,327. The nation's healthy ministry stated that most of the HIV patients were among intravenous drug users and that 70% of them were men, 25% women, the remaining 5% children, they belonged to Kabul and Herat, the provinces from where people make the most trips to neighboring and foreign countries.
Regarding Kandahar, 22 cases were reported in 2012. "AIDS Prevention department head Dr Hamayoun Rehman said 1,320 blood samples were examined and 21 were positive. Among the 21 patients, 18 were males and three were females who contracted the deadly virus from their husbands, he said. The main source of the disease was the use of syringes used by drug addicts." There are 23,000 addicts in the country who inject drugs into their bodies using syringescountry comparison to the world: 168 Up to 300 Degree of risk: high Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever Vector-borne diseases: malaria Animal contact diseases: rabiesNote: WH5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country. In August 2017, a nationwide distribution of e-ID cards is scheduled to begin; the ethnicity of each citizen
Transport in Afghanistan
Transport in Afghanistan is limited and in the developing stage. Much of the nation's road network was built during the 1960s but left to ruin during the 1980s and 90's wars. New national highways and bridges have been rebuilt in the last decade to help increase travel as well as trade with neighboring countries. In 2008, there were about 731,607 vehicles registered inside the country. Landlocked Afghanistan has no seaports but the Amu Darya river, which forms part of the nation's border with Turkmenistan and Tajikistan, does have large traffic. Rebuilding of airports and rail services has led to rapid economic boost in recent years; the nation has a much smaller number of heliports. Most major roads were built in the 1960s with assistance from the United States and the Soviet Union; the Soviets built a road and tunnel through the Salang pass in 1964, connecting northern and eastern Afghanistan. A highway connecting the principal cities of Herat, Kandahar and Kabul with links to highways in neighboring Pakistan formed the primary road system.
The network includes 12,350 kilometers of paved roads and 29,800 kilometers of unpaved roads, for an approximate total road system of 42,150 kilometers as of 2006. Traffic in Afghanistan is right hand, with about 731,607 registered vehicles in the country; the Afghan government passed a law banning the import of cars older than 10 years. Long distant road journeys are made by company-owned Mercedes-Benz coach buses or various types of vans and private *cars. Although a nationwide bus service is available between major cities, flying is safer for foreigners. There are occasional highway robberies by militant groups; the roads are dangerous due to accidents and lack of security forces. The highway system is going through a reconstruction phase. Most of the regional roads are being repaired or improved. For the last 30 years, the poor state of the Afghan transportation and communication networks have further fragmented and hampered the struggling economy; the following is a partial list of national roads: Kabul-Kandahar Highway Kabul-Jalalabad Road, which links the national capital to the eastern city of Jalalabad and the Pakistani border at Torkham Kabul-Gardez Highway Kabul-Herat Highway Kabul-Mazar Highway Kabul-Fayzabad Highway Kandahar-Bamyan Highway Kandahar-Boldak Highway Kandahar-Herat Highway Kandahar-Tarin Kowt Highway Kunduz-Khomri Highway Herat-Islam Qala Highway Herat-Mazar Highway Route Trident Delaram-Zaranj Highway Gardez-Pathan Highway in Paktia Province A road bridge linking Tajikistan and Afghanistan, which cost $37 million, was inaugurated in 2007.
The bridge, nearly 700 metres long and 11 metres across, straddles the Panj river which forms a natural border between the two countries, between the ports of Nizhny Panj on the Tajik side and Sher Khan Bandar in Afghanistan. The Delaram-Zaranj highway was constructed with Indian assistance and was inaugurated in January 2009. There is a 75-kilometer-long rail line between Uzbekistan and the northern Afghan city of Mazar-i-Sharif, all of, built to 1,520 mm broad gauge; the line begins from Termez and crosses the Amu Darya river on the Soviet-built Afghanistan–Uzbekistan Friendship Bridge reaching a site next to the Mazar-i-Sharif Airport. The Afghan government expects to have the rail line extended to Kabul and to the eastern border town of Torkham, connecting with Pakistan Railways; the work is carried out by China Metallurgical Group Corporation. For strategic reasons, past Afghan governments preferred to discourage the construction of railways which could aid foreign interference in Afghanistan by Britain or Russia.
A 10-kilometer-long 1,520 mm broad gauge line extends from Serhetabat in Turkmenistan to the town of Torghundi in Afghanistan. An upgrade of this Soviet-built line began in 2017. There is another 3.5 kilometer similar line that extends from Aqina dry port in Faryab province via Imamnazar to Atamyrat, where it connects with the Turkmen rail network. The latter line is expected to be extended by 300 kilometers to other northern provinces of Afghanistan. An initial extension of 58 kilometres to Andkhoy is under construction; the nearest railhead is a 1,435 mm standard gauge line in Iran. This line is being extended 191 kilometers east to Herat, of which 77 km is located inside Iran and the remaining 114 km in Afghanistan. Two broad gauge 1,676 mm Pakistan Railways lines terminate near the border at Chaman in Balochistan near the Khojak Pass. Various proposals exist to extend these lines on to Kabul respectively. In 2010, Pakistan and Afghanistan signed a Memorandum of understanding for going ahead with the laying of rail tracks between the two countries.
Work on the proposed project was set to start in late 2010. There are no rail links to China or Tajikistan, though a connection to the latter was proposed in 2008. Air transport in Afghanistan is provided by Ariana Afghan Airlines, Afghan Jet International, East Horizon Airlines, Kam Air, Pamir Airways, Safi Airways. Airlines from a number of nations provide air services to fly in and out of the country; these include Air India, Gulf Air, Iran Aseman Airlines, Pakistan International Airlines, Turkish Airlines and others. The nation has at least four international airports, including the Hamid Karzai International Airport followed by Herat International Airport, Kandahar International Airport, Mazar-e Sharif International Airport. There are a total of about 43 ai
Afghan Border Police
The Afghan Border Police secure Afghanistan's 5,529 kilometres border with neighboring countries and all its international airports. It administers immigration services such as checking documents of foreigners entering the country or deporting them; the ABP's anti-narcotic efforts are a prominent concern to the international community at present. The ABP and the regular Afghan National Police jointly patrol a 55 km-wide corridor along the entirety of Afghanistan's border the longest and porous Durand Line border in the southeast with neighboring Pakistan; the ABP falls under the command of the Afghan National Police, under the administrative control of the Ministry of Interior Affairs. The ABP is headquartered in Kabul, in the nation's capital, is commanded by a Lieutenant General; the Afghan Border Police divides command of its 23,000 police force across 6 zones to protect 14 Border Crossing Points and 5 Major Airports. Faryab Province Almar District Shirin Tagab District Dawlat Abad District Qaramqol District Andkhoy District Khani Chahar Bagh District Jowzjan Province Khwaja du koh District Khamyab District Qarqin District Balkh Province Shortepa District Kaldar District Kunduz Province Qalay-I-Zal District Imam Sahib District Takhar Province Khwaja Ghar District Yangi Qala District Sarqad District Chah Ab District Badakhshan Province Shahri Buzurg District Yawan District Ragh District Kuf Ab District Shekay District Darwaz district Darvaz-e Bala District Shighnan District Ishkashim District Wakhan District Zebak District Kuran wa Munjan District Nuristan Province Bargi Matal District Kamdesh District Kunar Province Nari District Dangam District Marawara District Sirkanay District Khas Kunar District Nangarhar Province Goshta District Lal Pur District Momand Dara District Dur Baba District Achin District Dih Bala District Pachir Wa Agam District Khogyani District Sherzad District Paktia Province Azra District Zazi District Dand Wa Patan District Khost Province Jaji Maydan District Bak District Tirazayi District Khost District Gurbuz District Tani District Spera District Paktika Province Ziruk District Urgon District Gayan District Barmal District Gomal District Wor Mamay District Zabul Province Shamulzayi District Atghar District Kandahar Province Maruf District Arghistan District Spin Boldak District Shorabak District Reg District Helmand Province Garmsir District Dishu District Nimruz Province Chahar Burjak District Zaranj District Kang District Farah Province Lash Wa Juwayn District Shib Koh District Qala i Kah District Anar Dara District Herat Province Adraskan District Ghoryan District Kohsan District Gulran District Kushk District Kushki Kuhna District Badghis Province Ab Kamari District Muqur District Murghab District Ghormach DistrictMajority of the Afghan Border Police officers are trained by the United States Armed Forces and various Federal government employees as well as by the European Union Police Mission.
In order to prepare for their duties as ABP, recruits attend an 8-week course designed by the German Bundespolizei. Italy provides qualified training to ABP personnel in West Region by TF GRIFO deployed in Herat by the Guardia di Finanza; the BPOL are still involved in mentoring ABP officers as of 2009. As of January 2011, there are at least 25 U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and Customs and Border Protection officers providing training to the Afghan Border Police. Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano stated that the number could reach 65 or more by the end of 2011. Napolitano visited the Torkham border crossing with Pakistan and was satisfied with the progress being made there; the ABP was known to have jointly trained with the Tajik Border Troops, its equivalent in Tajikistan, overseen by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. Combined Security Transition Command – Afghanistan
Ghazni is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in central Afghanistan, towards the east. The province contains 19 districts, encompassing over a thousand villages and 1.3 million people. The city of Ghazni serves as the capital, it lies on the important Kabul–Kandahar Highway, has functioned as an important trade center. The Ghazni Airport is located next to the city of Ghazni and provides limited domestic flights to Afghanistan's capital, Kabul; the province was known as Ghazna in the 10th century and after the Ghaznavid era. Ghazni was a thriving Buddhist center before and during the 7th century AD. Excavations have revealed religious artifacts of Buddhist traditions. "The two other great Buddhist centers and Tepe-e-sardar in its phase are a different matter and display another phase of influences coming from India from the seventh to eighth century. The representations show themes from Mahayana iconography and in the case of the latter site assume Tantric aspects which had established themselves in the large Indian monasteries like Nalanda."
In 644 AD, the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang visited the city of Jaguda, while returning from Varnu In 683 AD, armies from the Umayyad Caliphate brought Islam to the area and attempted to conquer the capital of Ghazni but the local tribes fiercely resisted. Its resistance was so famed that Yaqub Saffari from Zaranj made an example of Ghazni when he ranged the vast region conquering in the name of Islam; the city was destroyed by the Saffarids in 869. A substantial portion of the local population including Hindus and Buddhists were converted to Islam by Mahmud of Ghazni "There is no evidence that Ghazna had formed part of the Samanid kingdom, it had been overrun with the whole of Zabulistan and Kabul by the Saffaris by 260 but it is doubtful how far their power was permanent and when the Samanids became paramount there is no evidence that Kabul or Ghazna were under them. The ruler of Ghazna was allied to the Hindushahis of Kabul; these titles were not as yet used by the Muhammadan rulers. The Padshah Lavik was a Hindu chief though some passages in the Tabakth i Nisiri give him the name of Abu Bakr or Abu Ali."
After the rebuilding of the city by Yaqub's brother, it became the dazzling capital of the Ghaznavids from 994 to 1160, encompassing much of North India and Central Asia. Many iconoclastic campaigns were launched from Ghazni into India; the Ghaznavids took Islam to India and returned with fabulous riches taken from both prince and temple god. Contemporary visitors and residents at Ghazni write with wonder of the ornateness of the buildings, the great libraries, the sumptuousness of the court ceremonies and of the wealth of precious objects owned by Ghazni's citizens. Ferishta records attacks by Muhammad of Ghor: "at the same time most of the infidels who inhabited the mountains between Ghazni and the Indus were converted, some by force and others by persuasion." Ghazni's eponymous capital was razed in 1151 by the Ghorid Alauddin. It again flourished but only to be permanently devastated, this time in 1221 by Genghis Khan and his Mongol armies after 6 years of Khwarezmid rule. Ghazni's strategic position, both economically and militarily, assured its revival under the Qarlughids, albeit without its dazzling former grandeur.
Ghazni is famous for its minarets built on a stellar plan. They date from the middle of the twelfth century and are the surviving element of the mosque of Bahramshah, their sides are decorated with geometric patterns. Upper sections of the minarets have been destroyed; the most important mausoleum located in Ghazni is that of Sultan Mahmud's. Others include the tombs of poets and scientists, for example Sanai; the only ruins in Old Ghazni retaining a semblance of architectural form are two towers, about 43 m high and some 365 m apart. According to inscriptions, the towers were constructed by Mahmud of his son. Ibn Battuta noted "The greater part of the town is in ruins, with nothing but a fraction of it still standing, although it was a great city."Babur records in his memoirs that Ghazni was part of Zabulistan. The area was controlled by the Mughals until Nader Shah and his Persian forces invaded it in 1738. Ahmad Shah Durrani made it part of the Durrani Empire. During the First Anglo-Afghan War, the capital of Ghazni province was destroyed by the British-led Indian forces in the Battle of Ghazni.
In the 1960s a 15-meter female Buddha was discovered lying on its back and surrounded by empty pillars that once held rows of smaller male Buddhas. Parts of the female Buddha have been stolen. In the 1980s a mud brick shelter was created to protect the sculpture, but the wood supports were stolen for firewood and the shelter collapsed. Since the US-led invasion of Afghanistan in October 2001, there has been a Provincial reconstruction base and a NATO forces base; these western forces are hunting al-Qaida militants, who are still active in the area. Like many southern Afghan provinces, Ghazni has a precarious security situation; the Taliban insurgents are found in the rural areas outside of the capital, are involved in attacks on provincial schools and government infrastructure. The province has avoided the outright warfare seen in other provinces of Afghanistan such as Helmand and Kandahar, but, due more to political expediency and the tactical plans of the NATO-led ISAF force than the existence of a stable security situation in the province.
Ex-Governor Taj Mohammad was killed by insurgents in 2006 af
Zâbol pronunciation is a city and capital of Zabol County and Baluchestan Province, Iran. Zabol lies on the border with Afghanistan. Referred to as Sistan until the late 1920s, the city was renamed Zabol by Reza Shah Pahlavi. At the 2006 census, its population was 130,642, in 27,867 families. Zabol is located near Lake Hamun and the region is irrigated by the Helmand River. Lake Hamun is a seasonal lake, dry; the people of Zabol are predominantly Persians who speak a variant of the Persian language and known as Sistani or Seistani, similar to Dari known as Afghan Persian, a minority of Baloch who speak Balochi, a Northwestern Iranian language. The city is home to Zabol University, the largest university in the city, as well as the Zabol Medical Science University. Zabol has a regional airport. Zabol is connected by road to Zaranj across the border in Afghanistan; the Delaram-Zaranj Highway provides road connectivity to the rest of Afghanistan. Zabol thus provides Afghanistan access to the Arabian Persian Gulf via the Port of Chabahar.
The Zabol area is well known for its "120-day wind", a persistent dust storm in the summer which blows from north to south. The disappearance in the 2000s of the nearby Hamoun wetlands has exacerbated the dusty conditions in Zabol, leading the World Health Organization to name Zabol the most polluted city in the world in 2016. A 2017 study in the journal Preventive Medicine suggested that the harm from 30 minutes of cycling outdoors in Zabol's polluted air would outweigh the benefits of the exercise. Zabol has a hot desert climate. Media related to Zabol at Wikimedia Commons