The Russo-Japanese War was fought during 1904-1905 between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden in Southern Manchuria and the seas around Korea and the Yellow Sea. Russia sought a warm-water port on the Pacific Ocean for maritime trade. Vladivostok was operational only during the summer, whereas Port Arthur, a naval base in Liaodong Province leased to Russia by China, was operational all year. Since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895, Japan feared Russian encroachment on its plans to create a sphere of influence in Korea and Manchuria. Russia had demonstrated an expansionist policy in the Siberian Far East from the reign of Ivan the Terrible in the 16th century. Seeing Russia as a rival, Japan offered to recognize Russian dominance in Manchuria in exchange for recognition of Korea as being within the Japanese sphere of influence. Russia refused and demanded Korea north of the 39th parallel to be a neutral buffer zone between Russia and Japan.
The Japanese government perceived a Russian threat to its plans for expansion into Asia and chose to go to war. After negotiations broke down in 1904, the Japanese Navy opened hostilities by attacking the Russian Eastern Fleet at Port Arthur, China, in a surprise attack. Russia suffered multiple defeats by Japan, but Tsar Nicholas II was convinced that Russia would win and chose to remain engaged in the war. Russia ignored Japan's willingness early on to agree to an armistice and rejected the idea to bring the dispute to the Arbitration Court at The Hague; the war concluded with the Treaty of Portsmouth, mediated by US President Theodore Roosevelt. The complete victory of the Japanese military surprised world observers; the consequences transformed the balance of power in East Asia, resulting in a reassessment of Japan's recent entry onto the world stage. It was the first major military victory in the modern era of an Asian power over a European one. Scholars continue to debate the historical significance of the war.
After the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the Meiji government endeavored to assimilate Western ideas, technological advances and ways of warfare. By the late 19th century, Japan had transformed itself into a modernized industrial state; the Japanese wanted to be recognized as equal with the Western powers. The Meiji Restoration had been intended to make Japan a modernized state, not a Westernized one, Japan was an imperialist power, looking towards overseas expansionism. In the years 1869–73, the Seikanron had bitterly divided the Japanese elite between one faction that wanted to conquer Korea vs. another that wanted to wait until Japan was more modernized before embarking on a war to conquer Korea. Worse, the Western Powers were conquering small pieces of China and China had dominated Korea with its military for centuries; the Japanese were doing what they could to emulate the West in every way possible, including conqering and occupying its neighbors. In much the same way that Europeans used the "backwardness" of African and Asian nations as a reason for why they had to conquer them, for the Japanese elite the "backwardness" of China and Korea was proof of the inferiority of those nations, thus giving the Japanese the "right" to conquer them.
Inouye Kaoru, the Foreign Minister, gave a speech in 1887 saying "What we must do is to transform our empire and our people, make the empire like the countries of Europe and our people like the peoples of Europe", going to say that the Chinese and Koreans had forfeited their right to be independent by not modernizing. Much of the pressure for an aggressive foreign policy in Japan came from below, with the advocates of "people's rights" movement calling for an elected parliament favoring an ultra-nationalist line that took it for granted the Japanese had the "right" to annex Korea, as the "people's right" movement was led by those who favored invading Korea in the years 1869–73; as part of the modernization process in Japan, Social Darwinian ideas about the "survival of the fittest" were common in Japan from the 1880s onward and many ordinary Japanese resented the heavy taxes imposed by the government to modernize Japan, demanding something tangible like an overseas colony as a reward for their sacrifices.
Furthermore, the educational system of Meiji Japan was meant to train the schoolboys to be soldiers when they grew up, as such, Japanese schools indoctrinated their students into Bushidō, the fierce code of the samurai. Having indoctrinated the younger generations into Bushidō, the Meiji elite found themselves faced with a people who clamored for war, regarded diplomacy as a weakness; the British Japanologist Richard Storry wrote the biggest misconception about Japan in the West was that the Japanese people were the "docile" instruments of the elite, when in fact much of the pressure for Japan's wars from 1894 to 1941 came from below, as ordinary people demanded a "tough" foreign policy, tended to engage in riots and assassination when foreign policy was perceived to be pusillanimous. Though the Meiji oligarchy refused to allow democracy, they did seek to appropriate some of the demands of the "people's rights" movement by allowing an elected Diet in 1890 (with limited powers and an equally
Procurement is the process of finding and agreeing to terms, acquiring goods, services, or works from an external source via a tendering or competitive bidding process. Procurement is used to ensure the buyer receives goods, services, or works at the best possible price when aspects such as quality, quantity and location are compared. Corporations and public bodies define processes intended to promote fair and open competition for their business while minimizing risks such as exposure to fraud and collusion. All purchasing decisions include factors such as delivery and handling, marginal benefit, price fluctuations. Procurement involves making buying decisions under conditions of scarcity. If sound data is available, it is good practice to make use of economic analysis methods such as cost-benefit analysis or cost-utility analysis. An important distinction should be made between analyses without those with risk. Where risk is involved, either in the costs or the benefits, the concept of best value should be employed.
Procurement activities are often split into two distinct categories and indirect spend. Direct spend refers to the production-related procurement that encompasses all items that are part of finished products, such as raw material and parts. Direct procurement, the focus in supply chain management, directly affects the production process of manufacturing firms. In contrast, indirect procurement concerns non-production-related acquisition: obtaining “operating resources” which a company purchases to enable its operations. Indirect procurement comprises a wide variety of goods and services, from standardized items like office supplies and machine lubricants to complex and costly products and services like heavy equipment, consulting services, outsourcing services. Procurement is one component of the broader concept of sourcing and acquisition. Procurement is viewed as more tactical in nature and sourcing and acquisition are viewed as more strategic and encompassing; the Institute of Supply Management defines strategic sourcing as the process of identifying sources that could provide needed products or services for the acquiring organization.
The term procurement used to reflect the entire purchasing process or cycle, not just the tactical components. ISM defines procurement as an organizational function that includes specifications development, value analysis, supplier market research, buying activities, contract administration, inventory control, traffic and stores. Purchasing refers to the major function of an organization, responsible for acquisition of required materials and equipment; the United States Defense Acquisition University defines procurement as the act of buying goods and services for the government. DAU defines acquisition as the conceptualization, design, test, production, Logistics Support and disposal of weapons and other systems, supplies, or services to satisfy Department of Defense needs, intended for use in or in support of military missions. Acquisition and sourcing are therefore much wider concepts than procurement. Multiple sourcing business models exist, acquisition models exist; the revised acquisition process for major systems in industry and defense is shown in the next figure.
The process is defined by a series of phases during which technology is defined and matured into viable concepts, which are subsequently developed and readied for production, after which the systems produced are supported in the field. The process allows for a given system to enter the process at any of the development phases. For example, a system using unproven technology would enter at the beginning stages of the process and would proceed through a lengthy period of technology maturation, while a system based on mature and proven technologies might enter directly into engineering development or, conceivably production; the process itself includes four phases of development: Concept and technology development is intended to explore alternative concepts based on assessments of operational needs, technology readiness and affordability. The concept and technology development phase begins with concept exploration. During this stage, concept studies are undertaken to define alternative concepts and to provide information about capability and risk that would permit an objective comparison of competing concepts.
The system development and demonstration phase could be entered directly as a result of a technological opportunity and urgent user need, as well as having come through concept and technology development. The last, longest phase is the sustainable and disposal phase of the program. During this phase all necessary activities are accomplished to maintain and sustain the system in the field in the most cost-effective manner possible. Procurement officials realize that their make-buy supplier decisions fall along a continuum from simple buying transactions to more complex, strategic buyer-supplier collaborations, it is important for procurement officials to use the right sourcing business model that fits each buyer-seller situation. There are seven models along the sourcing continuum: basic provider, approved provider, preferred provider, performance-based/managed services model, Vested business model, shared services model and equity partnerships. A basic provider model is transaction-based; these products or services are available, with little differentiation in what is offered.
An approved prov
Constitutional Democratic Party (Japan)
Rikken Minseitō was one of the main political parties in pre-war Empire of Japan. It was known as the'Minseitō'; the Minseitō was founded on 1 June 1927, by a merger of the Kenseikai and the Seiyu Hontō political parties. Its leadership included Osachi Hamaguchi, Wakatsuki Reijirō, Yamamoto Tatsuo, Takejirō Tokonami, Adachi Kenzō, Koizumi Matajirō and Saitō Takao; the party platform was politically and economically more liberal than its major rival, the Rikken Seiyūkai, calling for rule by the Diet of Japan rather than bureaucrats or genrō, elimination of disparities in wealth, international cooperation, protection of personal liberties. Its main base of support was the urban middle class, but its principal financial backing was the Mitsubishi zaibatsu; the Minseitō fielded many candidates in the February 1928 General Election, winning 217 seats in the Lower House, as opposed to 218 seats for the Seiyūkai. This resulted in a hung parliament. In the following 1930 General Election, the Minseitō took 273 seats, as opposed to 174 seats for the Seiyūkai, which gave it an absolute majority.
Minseitō president Osachi Hamaguchi, Herbert Bix referred to him as Hamaguchi Yūkō, became Prime Minister. Hamaguchi’s first priority was to address the effects of the 1929 Stock Market Crash through retrenchment of government spending, tightening the money supply and encouraging exports while stabilizing foreign investments through returning to a fixed exchange rate. During its tenure, the Minseitō advocated a conciliatory foreign policy, ratified the London Naval Agreement of 1930. However, Hamaguchi fell victim to an assassination attempt on 14 November 1930 when he was shot in Tokyo Station by a member of an ultranationalist secret society. Wakatsuki Reijirō became acting Prime Minister from the Minseitō. In 1931, Minseitō opposed the Mukden Incident, engineered by the Imperial Japanese Army; the anti-war Foreign Minister Kijūrō Shidehara and Prime Minister Reijirō came under strong criticism for their intervention in military affairs, were accused of "serious corruption", his government collapsed in 1931.
In the following 1932 General Election, some right-wing members defected to the Rikken Seiyūkai, which won an absolute majority of 301 seats. Seiyūkai president Inukai Tsuyoshi became prime minister; the Minseitō was able to recover a slight majority of 205 seats versus 175 seats for the Seiyūkai in the 1936 General Election only by adopting a more pro-military stance. However, the narrow margin again resulted in a hung parliament; the Minseitō dropped back down to 179 seats in the 1937 General Election, while the Seiyūkai retained all of its 175 seats, which continued the paralysis in the Diet of Japan. On 15 August 1940 the Minseitō voted to dissolve itself into the Imperial Rule Assistance Association as part of Fumimaro Konoe's efforts to create a one-party state, thereafter ceased to exist. Garon, Sheldon; the State and Labor in Modern Japan. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-23915-7. Gordon, Andrew. A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-533922-3.
Sims, Richard. Japanese Political History Since the Meiji Renovation 1868-2000. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06838-6. Young, Louise. Japan's Total Empire: Manchuria and the Culture of Wartime Imperialism. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21934-1. Bix, Herbert P.. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers Inc. ISBN 0-06-019314-X
Mitsui Group is one of the largest keiretsu in Japan and one of the largest corporate groups in the world. The major companies of the group include Co.. Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation, Sapporo Breweries, Toray Industries, Mitsui Chemicals, Isetan Mitsukoshi Holdings, Sumitomo Mitsui Trust Holdings, Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding, Mitsui O. S. K. Lines and Mitsui Fudosan. Founded by Mitsui Takatoshi, the fourth son of a shopkeeper in Matsusaka, in what is now today's Mie prefecture. From his shop, called Echigoya, Mitsui Takatoshi's father sold miso and ran a pawn shop business; the family would open a second shop in Edo. Takatoshi moved to Edo when he was 14 years old, his older brother joined him. Sent back to Matsutaka by his brother, Takatoshi waited for 24 years until his older brother died before he could take over the family shop, Echigoya, he opened a new branch in 1673. This genesis of Mitsui's business history began in the Enpō era, a nengō meaning "Prolonged Wealth". In time, the gofukuya division separated from Mitsui, is now called Mitsukoshi.
Traditionally, gofukuyas provided. The system of accountancy was called "margin transaction". Mitsui changed this by producing products first selling them directly at his shop for cash. At the time, this was an unfamiliar mode of operation in Japan; as the shop began providing dry goods to the government of the city of Edo, cash sales were not yet a widespread business practice. At about this time, Edo's government had struck a business deal with Osaka. Osaka would sell other material to pay its land tax; the money was sent to Edo—but moving money was dangerous in middle feudal Japan. In 1683 the shogunate granted permission for money exchanges to be established in Edo; the Mitsui "exchange shops" mitigated that known risk. After the Meiji Restoration, Mitsui was among the enterprises that were able to expand to become zaibatsu not because they were big and rich at the start of modern industrial development. Firms like Mitsui and Sumitomo were led by non-family managers such as Minomura Rizaemon, who guided the business by forecasting the coming political and economic situations, by acquaintance with high-ranking government officials or politicians, bold investment.
Mitsui's main business in the early period were drapery and trade, the first two being the businesses it inherited from the Tokugawa Era. It entered into mining because it acquired a mine as collateral from the loan it had made, because it could buy a mine cheaply from the government, Mitsui diversified to become the biggest business in pre-war Japan; the diversification was made into related fields to take advantage of accumulated capabilities. On July 1, 1876, Mitsui Bank, Japan's first private bank, was founded with Takashi Masuda as its president. Mitsui Bank, which following a merger with Taiyō-Kobe Bank in the mid 1980s became part of Sakura Bank, survives as part of the Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation. During the early 20th century, Mitsui was one of the largest zaibatsu, operating in numerous fields. Mitsui Bank became the holding company of the Mitsui zaibatsu from 1876, it was joined as an ultimate parent company by Mitsui & Co. and Mitsui Mining in 1900, with various industrial concerns owned by various combinations of these companies and their subsidiaries.
Mitsui invested in maritime transportation to support its trading activities as well as invest in passenger transportation, first with the creation in 1878 of Osaka Shosen Kaisha, merged with Mitsui Steamship in 1964, to become Mitsui OSK Lines, today one of the largest ocean shipping groups in the world. When the United Kingdom withdrew from the gold standard in 1931, during the height of the Great Depression, Mitsui Bank and Mitsui & Co. were found to have speculated around the transaction. This raised a political furor in Japan and resulted in the assassination of Mitsui executive Takuma Dan; as part of the Japanese plans for the exploitation of China, during the 1930s and'40s the subsidiary tobacco industry of Mitsui had started production of special "Golden Bat" cigarettes using the then-popular in the Far East trademark. Their circulation was used only for export. Local Japanese secret service under the controversial Imperial Japanese Army General Kenji Doihara had the control of their distribution in China and Manchuria where the production exported.
Within the mouthpiece were small discreet doses of opium or heroin, millions of unsuspecting consumers became addicted to these narcotics, while huge profits were created for the company. The mastermind of the plan, was prosecuted and convicted for war crimes before the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, sentenced to death. According to testimony presented at the Tokyo War Crimes trials in 1948, the revenue from the narcotization policy in China, including Manchukuo, was estimated in 20 million to 30 million yen per year, while another authority stated that the annual revenue was estimated by the Japanese military at US$300 million a year. During the Second World War, Mitsui employed American prisoners of war as slave laborers, some
A merchant navy or merchant marine or mercantile marine is the fleet of merchant vessels that are registered in a specific country. On merchant vessels, seafarers of various ranks and sometimes members of maritime trade unions are required by the International Convention on Standards of Training and Watchkeeping for Seafarers to carry Merchant Mariner's Documents. King George V bestowed the title of the "Merchant Navy" on the British merchant shipping fleets following their service in the First World War; the following is a partial list of the merchant navies or merchant marines of various countries. In many countries the fleet's proper name is the capitalized version of the common noun; the British Merchant Navy comprises the British merchant ships that transport cargo and people during time of peace and war. For much of its history, the merchant navy was the largest merchant fleet in the world, but with the decline of the British Empire in the mid-20th century it slipped down the rankings.
In 1939, the merchant navy was the largest in the world with 33% of total tonnage. By 2012, the merchant navy—still remaining one of the largest in the world—held only 3% of total tonnage; as of the year ending 2012, British Merchant Marine interests consists of 1,504 ships of 100 GT or over. This includes parent owned or managed by a British company; this amounts to: 59,413,000 GT or alternatively 75,265,000 DWT. This is according to the annual maritime shipping statistics provided by the British government and the Department for Transport. British shipping is globally by the UK Chamber of Shipping. Canada, like several other Commonwealth nations, created its own merchant navy in a large-scale effort in World War II. Established in 1939, the Canadian Merchant Navy played a major role in the Battle of the Atlantic bolstering the Allies' merchant fleet due to high losses in the British Merchant Navy. Thousands of Canadians served in the merchant navy aboard hundreds of Canadian merchant ships, notably the "Park Ship", the Canadian equivalent of the American "Liberty Ship".
A school at St. Margarets Bay, Nova Scotia, trained Canadian merchant mariners. "Manning pools", merchant navy barracks, were built in Canadian ports. The Greek maritime fleet is today engaged in commerce and transportation of goods and services universally, it consists of the merchant vessels owned by Greek civilians, flying either the Greek flag or a flag of convenience. Greece is a maritime nation by tradition, as shipping is arguably the oldest form of occupation of the Greeks and a key element of Greek economic activity since ancient times. In 2015, the Greek Merchant Navy controlled the world's largest merchant fleet in terms of tonnage with a total DWT of 334,649,089 tons and a fleet of 5,226 Greek owned vessels, according to Lloyd's List. Greece is ranked regarding all types of ships, including first for tankers and bulk carriers; the birth of the modern Indian Merchant Navy occurred before independence from the United Kingdom, when in 1919 SS Loyalty sailed from India to Britain. Today, India ranks 15th in the world in terms of total DWT.
India supplies around 12.8% of officers and around 14.5% of ratings to the world seafaring community. This is one of the highest of any country. India trains its officers similar to coast guards with all equipment including combat training, they are trained to protect their vessels at all cost from pirates. In December 1939, 3,000 seafarers were employed and 186 merchant vessels were on the New Zealand Registry; some foreign vessels were impressed, including Pamir. New Zealand, like several other Commonwealth nations, created a merchant navy. However, the "wartime Merchant Navy was neither a military force nor a single coherent body", instead it was a "a diverse collection of private companies and ships". Although some ships were involved in the Atlantic and North Pacific trade this involved domestic and South Pacific cargos. New Zealand-owned ships were involved in trade with the United Kingdom and the majority of New Zealand seamen had served with the British Merchant Navy. Over the course of the war, 64 ships were sunk by enemy action on the New Zealand–UK route, 140 merchant seafarers lost their lives.
The Pakistan Merchant Navy was formed in 1947. The Ministry of Port and Shipping, Mercantile Marine Department and Shipping Office established by the Government of Pakistan were authorized to flag the ships and ensured that the vessels were sea worthy. All of the private shipping companies merged and formed the National Shipping Corporation and the Pakistan Shipping Corporation and as a result they had a common flag. Among these companies were the Muhammadi Steamship Company Limited and the East & West Steamship Company. In the Indo-Pak war of 1971 Pakistan suffered a great loss of its merchant vessels at the hands of Indians. On 1 January 1974, President of Pakistan Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto nationalized the National Shipping Corporation and Pakistan Shipping Corporation, formed the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation with the intent of reestablishing the Pakistan Merchant Navy; the company was incorporated under the provisions of the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation Ordinance of 1979 and the Companies Ordinance of 1984.
Today, the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation is the national flag carrier. The corporation's head office is located in Karachi. A regional office based in Lahore caters for
League of Blood Incident
The League of Blood Incident was a 1932 assassination plot in Japan in which extremists targeted wealthy businessmen and liberal politicians. The group chose twenty victims but succeeded in killing only two: former Finance Minister and head of the Rikken Minseitō political party, Junnosuke Inoue, the Director-General of Mitsui Holding Company, Dan Takuma.. The arrest of the assassins led to the discovery of the existence of a civilian ultranationalist group led by a Buddhist preacher, Nisshō Inoue, he was never ordained. Born as Inoue Shirō in 1886 in Gunma Prefecture, Nisshō spent his young adult life as a drifter and adventurer ending up in north and northeast China gathering information for the Japanese military. After a series of mystical experiences in 1923–24, Inoue became convinced that Japan required spiritual rebirth and that he was called to be its savior, he established a school in Ibaraki Prefecture to promote agrarianism and social reform, which evolved into a training center for ultra-rightist radicals.
He adopted the name Nisshō along with symbols derived from Nichiren Buddhism. After the October incident, a failed coup d'état by rightist Army officers of the Sakurakai ultranationalist secret society in 1931, Inoue became convinced that national reform could be achieved only through violent confrontation with what he saw as the forces of evil: pro-Western liberal politicians and zaibatsu business interests, he devised the slogan "ichinin issatsu" and drew up a list of twenty politicians and business leaders whose assassination would be the first step toward restoring supreme political power to the Emperor, a platform known as the "Shōwa Restoration". Inoue's original group made contact with a group of extremist officers in the Imperial Japanese Navy, who objected to Japan's acceptance of the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, a group of right-wing university students from Tokyo. Inoue distributed Browning automatic pistols to his followers. On 9 February 1932, Shō Onuma gunned down Junnosuke Inoue as he stepped from his car at the Komamoto Elementary School in Tokyo, where he was scheduled to give a political speech.
On 5 March 1932, Gorō Hishinuma waited outside the entrance to Mitsui Bank in Nihonbashi, with a picture of Takuma Dan in his pocket. When Dan arrived, he shot him dead on the spot. Both killers were apprehended immediately. On 11 March 1932, Inoue turned himself in at the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department, where he was treated with respect as a "patriot". Two months in the May 15 Incident, of 1932, Japanese naval officers, including some associated with the League of Blood, assassinated Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi; the phrase "League of Blood" is something of a misnomer. It referred to an oath of loyalty taken by a handful of the conspirators, but there is no evidence that it was a "blood oath" in any technical sense; the term "League of Blood", appeared in the popular press during the group's trial and was adopted by the lead prosecutor. The most important consequences of the League of Blood Incident sprang from the trial, which gave Inoue and his co-defendants a platform from which to broadcast their ultra-nationalist views.
Many in the Japanese public came to sympathize with the aims of the conspirators, if not their methods. Following the trial it became harder for courts to deal harshly with terrorists who claimed to be acting in the interests of the Emperor. In a more general sense the trial and its aftermath contributed to the erosion of the rule of law in 1930s Japan. Sentenced to life imprisonment in 1934, Inoue was released under a general amnesty in 1940, died in 1967; this incident inspired the central plot of Yukio Mishima's novel Runaway Horses. Beasley, WG; the Rise of Modern Japan, 3rd Edition: Political and Social Change since 1850. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-23373-6. Huffman, James. Modern Japan: An Encyclopedia of History and Nationalism. Routledge. ISBN 0-8153-2525-8. Large S. S.. Nationalist Extremism in Early Showa Japan: Inoue Nissho and the'Blood-Pledge Corps Incident, 1932. Modern Asian Studies 35: 553-564. Storry, Richard; the Double Patriots: A Study in Japanese Nationalism. Chatto & Windus. ASIN: B0000CJS5K