Pedro de Heredia
Pedro de Heredia was a Spanish conquistador, founder of the city of Cartagena de Indias and explorer of the northern coast and the interior of present-day Colombia. Pedro de Heredia was a descendant of a rich family of noble lineage, his parents were Inés Fernandez. The chronicler Juan de Castellanos tells that in his early years, he showed an adventurous and quarrelsome character. In his youth, Pedro de Heredia was involved in an altercation with six men who tried to kill him in a dark alley in Madrid; the fight left him with a disfigured nose that required the intervention of a doctor from the Spanish Crown. In retaliation, Heredia hunted down three of his attackers and killed them before fleeing to the New World to evade justice, leaving behind his wife and children. Heredia traveled to the West Indies with his brother Alonso de Heredia and settled in Santo Domingo, the capital of the island of Hispaniola, where they inherited a sugar mill and an estate in Azua Province. Came news of the death of the governor of Santa Marta, Rodrigo de Bastidas, the Royal Audiencia of Santo Domingo decided to send Pedro de Vadillo as interim governor of the province and Pedro de Heredia as his lieutenant.
In 1525, Vadillo and Heredia landed in Santa Marta with 200 men and soon became involved in disputes with Rodrigo Alvarez Palomino, a former lieutenant of Bastidas, which were resolved when the latter was drowned in the river that bears his name. Vadillo served as interim governor of Santa Marta but returned to Santo Domingo to face a residencia. In the meantime, Heredia continued in office until 1528, gaining extensive experience in his dealings with the Indians, he accumulated a considerable booty from exchanges of mirrors and other trinkets with the natives returned to Santo Domingo and sailed back to Spain. Once in Madrid, Heredia initiated efforts to gain royal approval to secure the conquest and government of the Bay of Cartagena and New Andalucía, a territory that stretched from the mouth of the Magdalena River to Darién Province, which had belonged to Alonso de Ojeda; the capitulación, or agreement, granting him the title of adelantado, was signed in Medina del Campo on August 5, 1532, by queen Joanna of Castile.
Heredia was granted an area covering all of what is now Colombia and more than half of present-day Ecuador, stretching inland to the equator. Heredia moved to Sevilla, where he procured a galleon, a caravel and a patache and embarked from Cádiz with 150 men and 22 horses in November, 1532. Heredia first landed in Puerto Rico, where he found the survivors of an expedition led by Sebastian Cabot, on his way back from the Rio de La Plata after six difficult and unsuccessful years spent in the New World. Heredia augmented his army with some of Cabot's officers, including Francisco César, whom he appointed as his lieutenant, he departed for Santo Domingo, where he visited his estates and drafted some Indians and slaves, a few Spanish women and an interpreter, India Catalina, a native woman fluent in both the Spanish and Indian tongues, kidnapped by Diego de Nicuesa when she was a girl. After spending Christmas Day in Santo Domingo, Heredia sailed across the Caribbean Sea to the mainland of South America where he cruised off the coast into Santa Marta Bay and past the mouth of the Magdalena River.
He passed several villages of the Mokaná Indians, until on January 14, 1533 he reached Calamari, the largest of them, standing on the sandy inner shore of Cartagena Bay. After fierce combat with the natives of the territory of Turbaco, Heredia founded a city, now Cartagena de Indias, naming it after Cartagena, Spain because it had a similar bay, but he called it "Cartagena de Poniente" to distinguish it from that city; the exact date of the founding of Cartagena de Indias remains a topic of controversy. Some argue that it was on January 20 or 21 in 1533, although the Colombian Academy of History has fixed the date as June 1, 1533. Heredia signed friendship pacts with the Indian chiefs of the nearby islands. With the help of Catalina acting as interpreter, Heredia conquered and ruled the area around Cartagena, including Turbaco and the Magdalena River, he looted Indian graves in the Sinú river area and founded Santiago de Tolú. His spoils from these expeditions included a solid gold porcupine weighing 132 pounds - the heaviest gold object plundered during the Conquest.
Heredia returned with half million ducats in gold. Each soldier received six thousand ducats, far more than the amount given to the troops who helped conquer Mexico and Peru. Pedro de Heredia prepared a second expedition to the South Sea and in 1534 he reached the Sinú river, where he ransacked the indigenous peoples' tombs for gold, he and his troops penetrated to Antioquia and returned exhausted to Cartagena. Once there, Heredia met Fray Tomas de Toro, the first bishop of Cartagena, sent by king Carlos I of Spain, his brother Alonso, who had arrived from Guatemala. Heredia rescinded appointed Alonso as lieutenant general, his brother Alonso led two expeditions to the Sinú, in the last he arrived at the Cauca river in 1535. In 1536, Heredia mounted. Irregularities in the conduct of the Heredia brothers earned them numerous complaints. In 1536, Judge Juan de Vadillo was appointed by the Audiencia of Santo Domingo to investigate the charges against Pedro de Heredia and his brother for defaulting on due payments for land and mistreatment of the natives.
Vadillo found Heredia guilty and imprisoned him, assuming for himself the interim government of
An alloy is a combination of metals and of a metal or another element. Alloys are defined by a metallic bonding character. An alloy may be a mixture of metallic phases. Intermetallic compounds are alloys with a defined crystal structure. Zintl phases are sometimes considered alloys depending on bond types. Alloys are used in a wide variety of applications. In some cases, a combination of metals may reduce the overall cost of the material while preserving important properties. In other cases, the combination of metals imparts synergistic properties to the constituent metal elements such as corrosion resistance or mechanical strength. Examples of alloys are steel, brass, duralumin and amalgams; the alloy constituents are measured by mass percentage for practical applications, in atomic fraction for basic science studies. Alloys are classified as substitutional or interstitial alloys, depending on the atomic arrangement that forms the alloy, they can be heterogeneous or intermetallic. An alloy is a mixture of chemical elements, which forms an impure substance that retains the characteristics of a metal.
An alloy is distinct from an impure metal in that, with an alloy, the added elements are well controlled to produce desirable properties, while impure metals such as wrought iron are less controlled, but are considered useful. Alloys are made by mixing two or more elements, at least one of, a metal; this is called the primary metal or the base metal, the name of this metal may be the name of the alloy. The other constituents may or may not be metals but, when mixed with the molten base, they will be soluble and dissolve into the mixture; the mechanical properties of alloys will be quite different from those of its individual constituents. A metal, very soft, such as aluminium, can be altered by alloying it with another soft metal, such as copper. Although both metals are soft and ductile, the resulting aluminium alloy will have much greater strength. Adding a small amount of non-metallic carbon to iron trades its great ductility for the greater strength of an alloy called steel. Due to its very-high strength, but still substantial toughness, its ability to be altered by heat treatment, steel is one of the most useful and common alloys in modern use.
By adding chromium to steel, its resistance to corrosion can be enhanced, creating stainless steel, while adding silicon will alter its electrical characteristics, producing silicon steel. Like oil and water, a molten metal may not always mix with another element. For example, pure iron is completely insoluble with copper; when the constituents are soluble, each will have a saturation point, beyond which no more of the constituent can be added. Iron, for example, can hold a maximum of 6.67% carbon. Although the elements of an alloy must be soluble in the liquid state, they may not always be soluble in the solid state. If the metals remain soluble when solid, the alloy forms a solid solution, becoming a homogeneous structure consisting of identical crystals, called a phase. If as the mixture cools the constituents become insoluble, they may separate to form two or more different types of crystals, creating a heterogeneous microstructure of different phases, some with more of one constituent than the other phase has.
However, in other alloys, the insoluble elements may not separate until after crystallization occurs. If cooled quickly, they first crystallize as a homogeneous phase, but they are supersaturated with the secondary constituents; as time passes, the atoms of these supersaturated alloys can separate from the crystal lattice, becoming more stable, form a second phase that serve to reinforce the crystals internally. Some alloys, such as electrum, an alloy consisting of silver and gold, occur naturally. Meteorites are sometimes made of occurring alloys of iron and nickel, but are not native to the Earth. One of the first alloys made by humans was bronze, a mixture of the metals tin and copper. Bronze was an useful alloy to the ancients, because it is much stronger and harder than either of its components. Steel was another common alloy. However, in ancient times, it could only be created as an accidental byproduct from the heating of iron ore in fires during the manufacture of iron. Other ancient alloys include pewter and pig iron.
In the modern age, steel can be created in many forms. Carbon steel can be made by varying only the carbon content, producing soft alloys like mild steel or hard alloys like spring steel. Alloy steels can be made by adding other elements, such as chromium, vanadium or nickel, resulting in alloys such as high-speed steel or tool steel. Small amounts of manganese are alloyed with most modern steels because of its ability to remove unwanted impurities, like phosphorus and oxygen, which can have detrimental effects on the alloy. However, most alloys were not created until the 1900s, such as various aluminium, titanium and magnesium alloys; some modern superalloys, such as incoloy and hastelloy, may consist of a multitude of different elements. As a noun, the term alloy is used to describe a mixture of atoms in which the primary constituent is a metal; when used as a verb, the term refers to the act of mixing a metal with other elements. The primary metal is called the matrix, or the solvent; the secondary constituents are called s
The Arhuaco are an indigenous people of Colombia. They are Chibchan-speaking people and descendants of the Tairona culture, concentrated in northern Colombia in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; the Arhuaco are known as the Aruaco, Bintucua, Bintuk, Bíntukua, Ijca, Ijka and Ike people. The Arhuacos live in the upper valleys of the Piedras River, San Sebastian River, Chichicua River, Ariguani River, Guatapuri River, in an indigenous territory in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Mountains, their traditional territory before the Spanish colonization, was larger than today's boundaries which exclude many of their sacred sites that they continue to visit today, to pay offerings. These lost territories are the lower parts by the steps of the mountains, lost to colonization and farming; the Arhuacos are distributed into 22 sections. Central Zone: Nabusimake and Busin. Western Zone: Serankua, Singunei. Southern Zone: Zigta, Gumuke, Seiarukwingumu and Simonorwa. Southeast Zone: Wirwa, Karwa. East Zone: Sogrome, Timaka, Aruamake and Izrwa.
The population is dispersed, but gets together in these towns for reunions and ceremonies, with Nabusimake being the most important of them and with a special significance: it's composed of fifty squared shaped houses and circular temples named Kankura, for men and women. The Arhuacos' main economic activity is subsistence agriculture, which traditionally was practiced by every family in the community in their own parcel by their houses; each family owned two houses, one in the high lands where the weather is cooler and another in the warmer, lower lands of the mountains. Nowadays they can only practice this on the higher lands due to expropriation of land during the Spanish colonization. In the higher lands, they cultivate potatoes, cabbages, blueberries, pumpkins and wheat. In the mid-lands. Coffee is cultivated for commercial purposes only along with Arhuaca mochilas, other arts and crafts to exchange in the lower lands for products they don't get in the high lands, they raise chickens, cattle and goats.
Men produce the traditional clothing, but nowadays they use modern clothing. The Arhuacos are a profoundly spiritual people who follow their own unique philosophy that tends to globalize their surroundings, they believe in a creator or "father" named Kakü Serankua, who engendered the first gods and material living things, other "fathers" like the sun and the snowy peaks and other "mothers" like the earth and the moon. They consider the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta to be the heart of the world, believe that the well-being of the rest of the world depends on it. Nature and society as a unity are ruled by a single sacred law, pre-existent and survivor to everyone and everything; the material world can exist or cease to exist but this law is believed to continue without being altered. This universal law Kunsamü is represented by Mamo Niankua; this law of nature is an explanation to the origins of matter and its evolution, equilibrium and harmony, that constitutes the fundamental objectives and the reason being of the Mamo.
Each Mamo or Mamü is selected among different candidates, boys ranging eight to ten years old that will receive a training for a minimum of nine years to fifteen years in average and are free to determine if they want to continue with it further the training period. To become a Mamo, they stay in a cave for nine years while the elders teach them everything they need to know, they specialize in certain knowledge areas such as philosophy, sacerdotalism and practical community or individual counselors. Their influence is decisive in their society. In 1916 the Arhuacos asked the government of Colombia for teachers to learn to read and write and learn about mathematics, but instead the government sent Capuchin Friars; the Friars prohibited the children from learning about their culture, established a "regime of terror" and put them aside in an orphanage. They established forced labor, ignoring the Arhuacos' plea to leave them alone. In 1943, politicians from Valledupar and Ministry of Agriculture, expropriated without compensation the best terrains of Nabusimake and built a State-owned, agricultural farm.
The Arhuacos fought back and in 1944 created the Liga de Indios de la Serra Nevada, but were outlawed in 1956 by a military government. In 1962, the government imposed the construction of a communications tower for TV in Mount Alguacil, considered sacred by the Arhuacos; this outraged them. The government established a military post to intimidate them, ordered the construction of a highway from their territory to Valledupar. Ignoring the threats, the Arhuacos reestablished their league. In 1972 the Arhuacos created the cabildo Gobernador, a better structured and adequate organization to defend their values and land. On August 7, 1982 they took over the mission's buildings; the Capuchins left in 1983. In 1975, not Arhuacos, started cultivating Marijuana in the Sierra Nevada; this brought more problems to the community, like forced recruitment for plantations, assimilation of the drug dealers' culture by some, violence. Many poor peasants from other regions of Colombia came to work in the Marihuana bonanza of the 1980s.
Walters Art Museum
The Walters Art Museum, located in Mount Vernon-Belvedere, Maryland, United States, is a public art museum founded and opened in 1934. It holds collections established during the mid-19th century; the Museum's collection was amassed by major American art and sculpture collectors, a father and son: William Thompson Walters, who began serious collecting when he moved to Paris as a nominal Southern/Confederate sympathizer at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861. After allowing the Baltimore public to view his father's and his growing added collections at his West Mount Vernon Place townhouse/mansion during the late 1800s, he arranged for an elaborate stone palazzo-styled structure built for that purpose in 1905–1909. Located across the back alley, a block south of the Walters mansion on West Monument Street/Mount Vernon Place, on the northwest corner of North Charles Street at West Centre Street; the mansion and gallery were just south and west of the landmark Washington Monument in the Mount Vernon-Belvedere neighborhood, just north of the downtown business district and northeast of Cathedral Hill.
Upon his 1931 death, Henry Walters bequeathed the entire collection of more than 22,000 works, the original Charles Street Gallery building, his adjacent townhouse/mansion just across the alley to the north on West Mount Vernon Place to the City of Baltimore, "for the benefit of the public." The collection includes masterworks of ancient Egypt, Greek sculpture and Roman sarcophagi, medieval ivories, illuminated manuscripts, Renaissance bronzes, Old Master European and 19th-century paintings, Chinese ceramics and bronzes, Art Deco jewelry, ancient Near East, Mesopotamian, or ancient Middle East items. In 2000, "The Walters Art Gallery" changed its long-time name to "The Walters Art Museum" to reflect its image as a large public institution and eliminate confusion among some of the increasing out-of-state visitors; the following year, "The Walters" reopened its original main building after a dramatic three-year physical renovation and replacement of internal utilities and infrastructure. The Archimedes Palimpsest was on loan to the Walters Art Museum from a private collector for conservation and spectral imaging studies.
Starting on October 1, 2006, the museum began having free admission year-round as a result of substantial grants given by Baltimore City and the surrounding suburban Baltimore County arts agencies and authorities. In 2012, "The Walters" released nearly 20,000 of its own images of its collections on a Creative Commons license, collaborated in their upload to the world-wide web and the internet on Wikimedia Commons; this was one of the most comprehensive such releases made by any museum. The Walters' collection of ancient art includes examples from Egypt, Greece, Rome and the Near East. Highlights include two monumental 3,000-pound statues of the Egyptian lion-headed fire goddess Sekhmet. In 1911, Henry Walters purchased 100 gold artifacts from the Chiriqui region of western Panama in Central America, creating a core collection of ancient American native art. Through subsequent gifts of art and loans, the museum has added works in pottery and stone, from Mexico, Central America and South America, including pieces from the Mesoamerican Olmec and Maya cultures, as well as the Moche and Inca peoples of South America.
Highlights of the Asian art collection assembled earlier by Baltimorean father and son collectors William T. and Henry Walters include Japanese arms and armor, Chinese and Japanese porcelains and metalwork. Among the museum's outstanding works of Asian art is a late-12th- or early-13th-century Cambodian bronze of the eight-armed Avalokiteshvara, a T'ang Dynasty earthenware camel, an intricately painted Ming Dynasty wine jar; the museum owns the oldest surviving Chinese wood-and-lacquer image of the Buddha. It is exhibited in a gallery dedicated to this work; the museum holds one of the largest and finest collections of Thai bronze and banner paintings in the world. Islamic art in all media is represented at the Walters. Among the highlights are a 7th-century carved and hammered silver bowl from Iran,; the Walters Museum owns an array of Islamic manuscripts. These include a 15th-century Koran from northern India, executed at the height of the Timurid Empire. Walters Art Museum, MS W.613 contains five Mughal miniatures from an important "Khamsa of Nizami" made for the Emperor Akbar.
Henry Walters assembled a collection of art produced
San Jorge River
The San Jorge River is a river in Colombia that begins in National Park Paramillo and that runs between the mountains of San Geronimo and Ayapel before flowing into the River Cauca in Sucre Department. The drainage basin comprises 96,500 square kilometres in the southeast of Córdoba Department, including the waters of Ayapel swamp and the Mompox region via the Caribbean departments of Cordoba and Bolivar, its tributaries are the rivers San Pedro and Ure. The river registers a minimum flow of 24 cubic metres per second and a maximum of 697 cubic metres per second; the San Jorge is one of the rivers with fish wealth, but its high pollution and deterioration was due to fishing with explosives and obtaining gold alluvium of its waters by the method of flotation mercury. The San Jorge was discovered by the Spanish conquistador-Madrid Alonso de Heredia, while seeking to establish contact with the culture Zenú in the 1530s. At that time the river was the Indian name of Xegú or Jegu and its banks flourished numerous villages of pre-Columbian society as Yape Zenú and Tacasuán (now San Benito Abad, near which Hall discovered the river.
Heredia gave the name of St. George in honor of the Christian saint. In 1966 American aviator sighted an extensive network of canals and artificial ridges San Jorge and was the first to say that the "raking" was not natural but a work of human engineering. In 1986, the Colombian archaeologist Clemencia Plazas and Anna Maria Falchetti, defending this thesis showed that the ridges and channels built on the banks of San Jorge were work Zenú pre-Columbian society, that the San Jorge Valley was inhabited by a technological society can be seen as pottery and jewelry found on the banks of the river. Consisting of an extensive network of canals, hydraulic Prehispanic San Jorge River covers an area of 20,000 square kilometres and was built by an ethnic group that inhabited the area between the first and fourth centuries as the limited data on the subject; as this is an area that remains flooded for several months a year, it was necessary to create a drainage system to allow the permanent establishment of the population there.
List of rivers of Colombia Rand McNally, The New International Atlas, 1993
Ayapel is a town and municipality located in the Córdoba Department, northern Colombia. Ayapel is a Colombian municipality located in the far eastern department of Cordoba and bathed by the waters of San Jorge and Ayapel swamp. Bounded on the north by San Marcos, San Benito Abad and Majagual, on the east by Guaranda and Achi, on the west by Buenavista and Montelibano, Pueblo Nuevo and south to the department of Antioquia. Gobernacion de Cordoba - Ayapel Ayapel official website
A tumulus is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, may be found throughout much of the world. A cairn, a mound of stones built for various purposes, may originally have been a tumulus. Tumuli are categorised according to their external apparent shape. In this respect, a long barrow is a long tumulus constructed on top of several burials, such as passage graves. A round barrow is a round tumulus commonly constructed on top of burials; the internal structure and architecture of both long and round barrows has a broad range, the categorization only refers to the external apparent shape. The method of inhumation may involve a dolmen, a cist, a mortuary enclosure, a mortuary house, or a chamber tomb. Examples of barrows include Duggleby Maeshowe; the word tumulus is Latin for'mound' or'small hill', derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *teuh2- with extended zero grade *tum-,'to bulge, swell' found in tumor, thumb and thousand.
The funeral of Patroclus is described in book 23 of the Iliad. Patroclus is burned on a pyre, his bones are collected into a golden urn in two layers of fat; the barrow is built on the location of the pyre. Achilles sponsors funeral games, consisting of a chariot race, wrestling, running, a duel between two champions to the first blood, discus throwing and spear throwing. Beowulf's body is taken to Hronesness. During cremation, the Geats lament the death of their lord, a widow's lament being mentioned in particular, singing dirges as they circumambulate the barrow. Afterwards, a mound is built on top of a hill, overlooking the sea, filled with treasure. A band of twelve of the best warriors ride around the barrow, singing dirges in praise of their lord. Parallels have been drawn to the account of Attila's burial in Jordanes' Getica. Jordanes tells that as Attila's body was lying in state, the best horsemen of the Huns circled it, as in circus games. An Old Irish Life of Columcille reports that every funeral procession "halted at a mound called Eala, whereupon the corpse was laid, the mourners marched thrice solemnly round the spot."
Archaeologists classify tumuli according to their location and date of construction. Some British types are listed below: Bank barrow Bell barrow Bowl barrow D-shaped barrow – round barrow with a purposely flat edge at one side defined by stone slabs. Disc barrow Fancy barrow – generic term for any Bronze Age barrows more elaborate than a simple hemispherical shape. Long barrow Oval barrow – a Neolithic long barrow consisting of an elliptical, rather than rectangular or trapezoidal mound. Platform barrow – The least common of the recognised types of round barrow, consisting of a flat, wide circular mound that may be surrounded by a ditch, they occur across southern England with a marked concentration in East and West Sussex. Pond barrow – a barrow consisting of a shallow circular depression, surrounded by a bank running around the rim of the depression, from the Bronze Age. Ring barrow – a bank that encircles a number of burials. Round barrow – a circular feature created by the Bronze Age peoples of Britain and the Romans and Saxons.
Divided into subclasses such as saucer and bell barrow—the Six Hills are a rare Roman example. Saucer barrow – a circular Bronze Age barrow that features a low, wide mound surrounded by a ditch that may have an external bank. Square barrow – burial site of Iron Age date, consisting of a small, ditched enclosure surrounding a central burial, which may have been covered by a mound. In 2015, the first long barrow in thousands of years, inspired by those built in the Neolithic Period, was built near All Cannings in England; the project was steward of Stonehenge. The barrow was designed to have a large number of private niches within the stone and earth structure to receive cremation urns; the structure received significant media attention, with national press writing extensively about the revival of the structures, various episodes of filming, for example by BBC Countryfile as it was being built. It was subscribed within eighteen months; this was followed soon after by a new barrow near St Neots. Further plans to revive barrows are at Soulton in Shropshire.
The word kurgan is of Turkic origin, derives from Proto-Turkic *Kur-. In Ukraine and Russia, there are royal kurgans of Varangian chieftains, such as the Black Grave in Ukrainian Chernihiv, Oleg's Grave in Russian Staraya Ladoga, vast, intricate Rurik's Hill near Russian Novgorod. Other important kurgans are found in Ukraine and South Russia and are associated with much more ancient steppe peoples, notably the Scythians and early Indo-Europeans The steppe cultures found in Ukraine and South Russia continue into Central Asia, in particular Kazakhstan. Salweyn in northern Somalia contains a large field of cairns, which stretches for a distance of around 8 km. An excavation of one of these tumuli by Georges Révoil in 1881 uncovered a tomb, beside which were artefacts pointing to an ancient, advanced civilization; the interred objects included pottery shards from Samos, some well-crafted enamels, a mask of Ancient Greek design. Tumuli are one of the most prominent types of prehistoric monuments spread throughout northern and southern Albania.
Some well-known local tumuli are: Kamenica Tumulus Lofkënd Tumulus Pazhok Tumulus More than 50 burial mounds were found in Kupres. Man from Kupres- the skeleton found