Video game console
A video game console is a computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play. The term "video game console" is used to distinguish a console machine designed for consumers to use for playing video games, in contrast to arcade machines or home computers. An arcade machine consists of a video game computer, game controller and speakers housed in large chassis. A home computer is a personal computer designed for home use for a variety of purposes, such as bookkeeping, accessing the Internet and playing video games. While arcades and computers are expensive or “technical” devices, video game consoles were designed with affordability and accessibility to the general public in mind. Unlike similar consumer electronics such as music players and movie players, which use industry-wide standard formats, video game consoles use proprietary formats which compete with each other for market share. There are various types of video game consoles, including home video game consoles, handheld game consoles and dedicated consoles.
Although Ralph Baer had built working game consoles by 1966, it was nearly a decade before the Pong game made them commonplace in regular people's living rooms. Through evolution over the 1990s and 2000s, game consoles have expanded to offer additional functions such as CD players, DVD players, Blu-ray disc players, web browsers, set-top boxes and more; the first video games appeared in the 1960s. They were played on massive computers connected to vector displays, not analog televisions. Ralph H. Baer conceived the idea of a home video game in 1951. In the late 1960s, while working for Sanders Associates, Baer created a series of video game console designs. One of these designs, which gained the nickname of the 1966 "Brown Box", featured changeable game modes and was demonstrated to several TV manufacturers leading to an agreement between Sanders Associates and Magnavox. In 1972, Magnavox released the Magnavox Odyssey, the first home video game console which could be connected to a TV set. Ralph Baer's initial design had called for a huge row of switches that would allow players to turn on and off certain components of the console to create different games like tennis, volleyball and chase.
Magnavox replaced the switch design with separate cartridges for each game. Although Baer had sketched up ideas for cartridges that could include new components for new games, the carts released by Magnavox all served the same function as the switches and allowed players to choose from the Odyssey's built-in games; the Odyssey sold about 100,000 units, making it moderately successful, it was not until Atari's arcade game Pong popularized video games that the public began to take more notice of the emerging industry. By autumn 1975, bowing to the popularity of Pong, canceled the Odyssey and released a scaled-down version that played only Pong and hockey, the Odyssey 100. A second, "higher end" console, the Odyssey 200, was released with the 100 and added on-screen scoring, up to four players, a third game—Smash. Released with Atari's own home Pong console through Sears, these consoles jump-started the consumer market. All three of the new consoles used simpler designs than the original Odyssey did with no board game pieces or extra cartridges.
In the years that followed, the market saw many companies rushing similar consoles to market. After General Instrument released their inexpensive microchips, each containing a complete console on a single chip, many small developers began releasing consoles that looked different externally, but internally were playing the same games. Most of the consoles from this era were dedicated consoles playing only the games that came with the console; these video game consoles were just called video games because there was little reason to distinguish the two yet. While a few companies like Atari and newcomer Coleco pushed the envelope, the market became flooded with simple, similar video games. Fairchild released the Fairchild Video Entertainment System in 1976. While there had been previous game consoles that used cartridges, either the cartridges had no information and served the same function as flipping switches or the console itself was empty and the cartridge contained all of the game components.
The VES, contained a programmable microprocessor so its cartridges only needed a single ROM chip to store microprocessor instructions. RCA and Atari soon released their own cartridge-based consoles, the RCA Studio II and the Atari 2600, respectively; the first handheld game console with interchangeable cartridges was the Microvision designed by Smith Engineering, distributed and sold by Milton-Bradley in 1979. Crippled by a small, fragile LCD display and a narrow selection of games, it was discontinued two years later; the Epoch Game Pocket Computer was released in Japan in 1984. The Game Pocket Computer featured an LCD screen with 75 X 64 resolution and could produce graphics at about the same level as early Atari 2600 games; the system sold poorly, as a result, only five games were made for it. Nintendo's Game & Watch series of dedicated game systems proved more successful, it helped to establish handheld gaming as popular and lasted until 1991. Many Game & Watch games were re-released on Nintendo's subsequent handheld systems.
The VES continued to be sold at a profit after 1977, both Bally and Magnavox brought their own programmable cartridge-based consoles to the market. However, i
The Sega Genesis, known as the Mega Drive in regions outside of North America, is a 16-bit home video game console developed and sold by Sega. The Genesis was the successor to the Master System. Sega released it as the Mega Drive in Japan in 1988, followed by North America as the Genesis in 1989. In 1990, it was distributed as the Mega Drive by Virgin Mastertronic in Europe, Ozisoft in Australasia, Tec Toy in Brazil. In South Korea, it was distributed by Samsung as the Super Gam*Boy and the Super Aladdin Boy. Designed by an R&D team supervised by Hideki Sato and Masami Ishikawa, the Genesis was adapted from Sega's System 16 arcade board, centered on a Motorola 68000 processor as the CPU, a Zilog Z80 as a sound controller, a video system supporting hardware sprites and scrolling, it plays a library of more than 900 games created by Sega and a wide array of third-party publishers and delivered on ROM-based cartridges. Several add-ons were released, including a Power Base Converter to play Master System games.
It was released in several different versions, some created by third parties. Sega created two network services to support the Genesis: Sega Channel. In Japan, the Mega Drive fared poorly against its two main competitors, Nintendo's Super Famicom and NEC's PC Engine, but it achieved considerable success in North America and Europe. Contributing to its success were its library of arcade game ports, the popularity of Sega's Sonic the Hedgehog series, several popular sports franchises, aggressive youth marketing that positioned the system as the cool console for adolescents; the release of the Super Nintendo Entertainment System two years after the Genesis resulted in a fierce battle for market share in the United States and Europe, termed as a "console war" by journalists and historians. As this contest drew increasing attention to the video game industry among the general public, the Genesis and several of its highest-profile games attracted significant legal scrutiny on matters involving reverse engineering and video game violence.
Controversy surrounding violent games such as Night Trap and Mortal Kombat led Sega to create the Videogame Rating Council, a predecessor to the Entertainment Software Rating Board. 30.75 million first-party Genesis units were sold worldwide. In addition, Tec Toy sold an estimated three million licensed variants in Brazil, Majesco projected it would sell 1.5 million licensed variants of the system in the United States, much smaller numbers were sold by Samsung in South Korea. By the mid-2010s, licensed third-party Genesis rereleases were still being sold by AtGames in North America and Europe. Many games have been rereleased in compilations or on online services such as the Nintendo Virtual Console, Xbox Live Arcade, PlayStation Network, Steam; the Genesis was succeeded in 1994 by the Sega Saturn. In the early 1980s, Sega Enterprises, Inc. a subsidiary of Gulf & Western, was one of the top five arcade game manufacturers active in the United States, as company revenues surpassed $200 million between July 1981 and June 1982.
A downturn in the arcade business starting in 1982 hurt the company, leading Gulf & Western to sell its North American arcade manufacturing organization and the licensing rights for its arcade games to Bally Manufacturing. The company retained Sega's North American R&D operation, as well as its Japanese subsidiary, Sega Enterprises, Ltd. With its arcade business in decline, Sega Enterprises, Ltd. president Hayao Nakayama advocated that the company leverage its hardware expertise to move into the home console market in Japan, in its infancy at the time. Nakayama received permission to proceed with this project, leading to the release of Sega's first home video game system, the SG-1000, in July 1983; the SG-1000 was not successful. Sega estimated; the SG-1000 was replaced by the Sega Mark III within two years. In the meantime, Gulf & Western began to divest itself of its non-core businesses after the death of company founder Charles Bluhdorn, so Nakayama and former Sega CEO David Rosen arranged a management buyout of the Japanese subsidiary in 1984 with financial backing from CSK Corporation, a prominent Japanese software company.
Nakayama was installed as CEO of the new Sega Enterprises, Ltd. In 1986, Sega redesigned the Mark III for release in North America as the Sega Master System; this was followed by a European release the next year. Although the Master System was a success in Europe, in Brazil, it failed to ignite significant interest in the Japanese or North American markets, which, by the mid-to-late 1980s, were both dominated by Nintendo. With Sega continuing to have difficulty penetrating the home market, Sega's console R&D team, led by Masami Ishikawa and supervised by Hideki Sato, began work on a successor to the Master System immediately after that console launched. In 1987, Sega faced another threat to its console business when Japanese computer giant NEC released the PC Engine amid great publicity. To remain competitive against the two more established consumer electronics companies and his team decided they needed to incorporate a 16-bit microprocessor into their new system to make an impact in the marketplace and once again turned to Sega's strengths in the arcade industry to adapt the successful Sega System 16 arcade board into architecture for a home console.
The decision to use a Motorola 68000 as the system's main CPU was made late in development, while a Zilog Z80 was used as a secondary CPU to handle the sound due to f
An amusement arcade is a venue where people play arcade games such as video games, pinball machines, electro-mechanical games, redemption games, merchandisers, or coin-operated billiards or air hockey tables. In some countries, some types of arcades are legally permitted to provide gambling machines such as slot machines or pachinko machines. Games are housed in cabinets; the term used for ancestors of these venues in the beginning of the 20th century was penny arcades. Video games were introduced in amusement arcades in the late 1970s and were most popular during the golden age of arcade video games, the early 1980s. Arcades became popular with children and adolescents, which led parents to be concerned that video game playing might cause them to skip school. A penny arcade can be any type of venue for coin-operated devices for entertainment; the term came into use about 1905-1910. The name derives from the penny, once a staple coin for the machines; the machines used included: bagatelles, a game with elements of billiards and non-electrical pinball, early forms of non-electrical pinball machines, fortune-telling machinery, slot machines, coin-operated Amberolas peep show machines, which allowed the viewer to see various objects and pictures Mutoscopes love tester machines.
Coin operated shooter gamesPenny arcades led to the creation of video arcades in the 1970s. Arcades catering for video games began to gain momentum in the late 1970s with games such as Space Invaders and Galaxian and became widespread in 1980 with Pac-Man and others; the central processing unit in these games allowed for more complexity than earlier discrete-circuitry games such as Atari's Pong. During the late 1970s video-arcade game technology had become sophisticated enough to offer good-quality graphics and sounds, but it remained basic and so the success of a game had to rely on simple and fun gameplay; this emphasis on the gameplay explains why many of these games continue to be enjoyed as of 2018, despite the progress made by modern computing technology. The golden age of video arcade games in the 1980s became a peak era of video arcade game popularity and earnings. Color arcade games became more prevalent and video arcades themselves started appearing outside their traditional bowling-alley and bar locales.
Designers experimented with a wide variety of game genres, while developers still had to work within strict limits of available processor-power and memory. The era saw the rapid spread of video arcades across Western Europe and Japan; the number of video-game arcades in North America, for example, more than doubled between 1980 and 1982, reaching a peak of 13,000 video game arcades across the region. Beginning with Space Invaders, video arcade games started to appear in supermarkets, liquor stores, gas stations and many other retail establishments looking for extra income; this boom came to an end in the mid-1980s, in what has been referred to as "the great coin-op video crash of 1983". On November 30, 1982, Jerry Parker, the Mayor of Ottumwa, declared his city the "Video Game Capital of the World"; this initiative resulted in many firsts in video game history. Playing a central role in arcade history, Ottumwa saw the birth of the Twin Galaxies Intergalactic Scoreboard and the U. S. National Video Game Team, two organizations that still exist today.
Other firsts that happened in the Video Game Capital of the World included: the first video-game-themed parade the first video game world championship the first study of the brain waves of video-game champions the first billion-point video-game performance the first official day to honor a video-game player High game-turnover in Japanese arcades required quick game-design, leading to the adoption of standardized systems like JAMMA, Neo-Geo and CPS-2. These systems provided arcade-only consoles where the video game ROM could be swapped to replace a game; this allowed easier development and replacement of games, but it discouraged the hardware innovation necessary to stay ahead of the technology curve. Most US arcades didn't see the intended benefit of this practice since many games weren't exported to the US, if they were, distributors refused to release them as a ROM, preferring to sell the entire ROM, sometimes the cabinet as a package. In fact, several arcade systems such as Sega's NAOMI board are arcade versions of home systems.
The arcade industry entered a major slump in mid-1994. Arcade attendance and per-visit spending, though not as poor as during the 1983 crash, declined to the point where several of the largest arcade chains either were put up for sale or declared bankruptcy, while many large arcade machine manufacturers moved to get out of the business. In the second quarter of 1996, video game factories reported 90,000 arcade cabinets sold, as compared to 150,000 cabinets sold in 1990; the main reason for the slump was increasing competition from console ports. During the 1980s it took several years for an arcade game to be released on a home console, the port differed from the arcade version. In the late 1990s, a bar opened in the new Crown Casino complex in Melbourne, Australia named Barcode
A regional lockout is a class of digital rights management preventing the use of a certain product or service, such as multimedia or a hardware device, outside a certain region or territory. A regional lockout may be enforced through physical means, through technological means such as detecting the user's IP address or using an identifying code, or through unintentional means introduced by devices only supporting certain regional technologies. A regional lockout may be enforced for several reasons, such as to stagger the release of a certain product, to avoid losing sales to the product's foreign publisher, to maximize the product's impact in a certain region through localization, to hinder grey market imports by enforcing price discrimination, or to prevent users from accessing certain content in their territory because of legal reasons; the DVD, Blu-ray Disc, UMD media formats all support the use of region coding. Most Blu-ray discs are region-free. On computers, the DVD region can be changed five times.
Windows uses three region counters: its own one, the one of the DVD drive, the one of the player software. After the fifth region change, the system is locked to that region. In modern DVD drives, the region lock is saved to its hardware, so that reinstalling Windows or using the drive with a different computer will not unlock the drive again. Unlike DVD regions, Blu-ray regions are verified only by the player software, not by the computer system or the drive; the region code is stored in a file or the registry, there are hacks to reset the region counter of the player software. In stand-alone players, the region code is part of the firmware. For bypassing region codes, there are software and multi-regional players available. A new form of Blu-ray region coding tests not only the region of the player/player software, but its country code; this means, for example, although both USA and Japan are Region A, some American discs will not play on devices/software installed in Japan or vice versa, since the two countries have different country codes.
Any DVD-HD 184.108.40.206 has an option to turn off the check of the country code of by using the value 4294967295 or Hex FFFFFFFF. The software developers say users can change the country code in the registry value "bdCountryCode" themselves; some features of certain programs are/were disabled if the software is/was installed on a computer in a certain region. In older versions of the copy software CloneCD, the features "Amplify Weak Sectors", "Protected PC Games," and "Hide CDR Media" were disabled in the United States and Japan. Changing the region and language settings in Windows or patches could unlock these features in the two countries. SlySoft decided to leave these options disabled for the USA for legal reasons, strangely enough, in the program "AnyDVD", illegal according to US law, no features were disabled; the current version of CloneCD is not region-restricted anymore. The newer versions of the copy software DVDFab come in a US version, downloaded if the homepage dvdfab.cn identifies a US IP address, a non-US version.
Some webpages allow the download of the non-US version from the US. The software CCleaner v5.45.6611 has an added check to prevent the use in embargoed countries. Some programs are distributed in different versions for PAL computers. In some cases, to avoid grey market imports or international software piracy, they are designed not to run on a computer with the wrong TV system. Other programs can run on computers with both TV systems. Kaspersky Lab sells its anti-virus products at different prices in different regions and uses regionalized activation codes. A program bought in a country of a region can be activated in another country of the same region. Once activated, the software can be used in and download updates from other regions as long as the license is valid. Problems may arise when the license must be renewed, or if the software must be reinstalled, in a region other than the one where it was bought; the region is identified by the IP address, so the use of VPN or a proxy is recommended to circumvent the restriction.
The Kaspersky regions are: Region 1: Canada, United States and Bermuda Region 2: Western Europe, the Middle East, South Africa and Japan Region 3: Southeast Asia Region 4: Central America, South America, Oceania.
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization, tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi and The Hague; the organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law; the UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; the UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945; the UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted of unarmed military observers and armed troops with monitoring and confidence-building roles; the organization's membership grew following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, UNICEF; the UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work; the organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed; some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt. In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife.
In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies; the League of Nations was approved, in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification.
On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria, it failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia and other nations left the league, but all of them realised that they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.
When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U. S. State Department in 1939; the text of the "Declaration by United Nations" was drafted at the White House on December 29, 1941, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins
Taito Corporation is a Japanese video game developer and publisher of arcade hardware and mobile phones, an operator of video arcades. It is a former publisher of home video games. Taito is wholly owned by Square Enix Holdings. Despite being a subsidiary to Square Enix Holdings, the parent company has kept the branding of Taito distinct from Square Enix. Taito is known for producing arcade games, such as Space Invaders, Bubble Bobble, Arkanoid, its arcade games found success around the world. Taito imports and distributes American coin-op video games in Japan, where it owns several arcades, known as Taito Stations or Game Taito Stations. Taito has its headquarters in the Shinjuku Bunka Quint Building in Yoyogi, Tokyo, sharing the facility with its parent company. In the past, the company had operated divisions in North America, South Korea, the United Kingdom and China; the company was founded in 1953 by a Ukrainian Jewish businessman named Michael Kogan as Taito Trading Co. Ltd.. Taito started out distributing vending machines.
It was the first company to sell vodka in Japan. It began leasing jukeboxes and started to manufacture its own. Taito began producing electro-mechanical arcade games in the 1960s. Taito changed its name from Taito Trading Company to Taito Corporation in August 1972 and introduced its first video arcade game in 1973. Several of its early arcade games saw release in North America by Midway, a Chicago area-based arcade manufacturer with strong ties to Taito. In 1978 Toshihiro Nishikado, a designer at Taito, created Space Invaders which became the company's most popular title and one of the most memorable games in arcade history, responsible for beginning the golden age of arcade video games. Taito opened in 1973 its Taito America division. In its first years, Taito America's sole purpose was to handle the licensing of Taito's video games to American third party publishers, it was not until the late 1970s that Taito America began to self-publish Taito's video games in North America. Based in Elk Grove Village, Taito America relocated to nearby Wheeling in 1985.
While the majority of Taito America's catalog were titles that were released in Japan by its parent company, it did publish video games licensed from third-party companies, as well as games that were developed in the United States for Taito. In April 1986 and a month after becoming part of the Kyocera group, Taito merged with two of its subsidiaries, Pacific Industrial Co. Ltd. and the Japan Vending Machine Co. Ltd, absorbed them both. Japan Vending Machine was once an independent company but was purchased by Taito in July 1971 to strengthen its presence in the operation of amusement facilities. Pacific Industrial was created by Taito itself in 1963 to develop products for the company. In August 1988, on the occasion of its 35th anniversary, the company changed its logo to the current one. In April 1988, Taito Software, the subsidiary of Taito America responsible for non-arcade operations, opened its own office in North Vancouver, British Columbia. While manufacturing and distribution of Taito arcade video games in North America continued to be handled in Wheeling, the North Vancouver unit became in charge of releasing video games for Nintendo's products and the computer market.
In addition to its corporate offices in North Vancouver, Taito Software operated a distribution center in Bothell, Washington. By early 1991 Taito Software had shut down, publishing of home video games returned in Wheeling. Taito America ceased operations in July 1996 after more than 20 years of existence. Taito had sold exclusive rights for publishing its games in America to Acclaim Entertainment the previous year. A division existed in London, United Kingdom to distribute Taito games in Europe. Taito Corporation Limited was created in 1988 and liquidated in February 1998. Taito has developed many arcade video games. Space Invaders is most notable. Q. Puzznic, Kick Master, Gun Buster and Puzzle Bobble. Taito had a license from Hanna-Barbera to produce games based on The Flintstones and The Jetsons. Several of Taito's video games that were released for the Famicom and the Super Famicom in Japan were a joint venture with Disco Corporation. Disco Corporation was established in July 1972 by Taito as a subsidiary to import and sale home electronic products.
As of 2003, Disco's main activities were the development and handling of licenses of computers, peripheral devices and software. In 1992, Taito announced a CD-ROM-based video game console named WOWOW, that would have allowed people to play near-exact ports of Taito's arcades, as well as download games from a satellite transmission, it was named after the Japanese television station WOWOW and would have utilized its stations to download games. The WOWOW was never released; when Taito was owned by Kyocera, its headquarters were in Chiyoda. Taito entered the Tokyo Stock Exchange in January 1993, listed in the Second Section, it transitioned to the First Section in September 2003. In October 2000, Taito merged with Kyocera Multimedia Corporation to enter the market of mobile phones for the first time. On August 22, 2005, it was announced that the gaming conglomerate Square Enix would purchase 247,900 Taito shares worth ¥45.16 billion, to make Taito Corporation a subsidiary of Square Enix
Sega Force was an early 1990s publication that covered the Sega console range. Sega Force and Nintendo Force were announced in mid-1991 by Newsfield. However, the liquidation of the publisher resulted in the magazine being delayed, it was launched by Europress Impact in December 1991. The magazine featured artwork created by Oliver Frey, inspired by Japanese anime, such as Akira. Frey introduced a horror element into his artwork, his artwork for a Lemmings cover replaced the rodents with humans, depicting their horrified faces as they fell to the ground. The title featured work by Stuart Wynne, Phil King, Steve Shields, Adrian Pitt and Matt Yeo; the magazine featured novellas based on console games. Staff writer, Matt Yeo worked in conjunction with Acclaim software to publish a novella based on Super Smash TV; the narrative followed the plot of the computer game and at the end of each chapter offered readers hints and tips on how to complete the game. The narrative style was in keeping with the brash violent cartoons used within the title itself - and bore striking similarities to Stephen King's The Running Man.
Sega Force's move into computer game fiction is considered to be a response to its rival Sega Power, which had had success with several books based on computer games. In 1993, Impact Magazines made the decision to separate the Sega N-Force titles. Sega Force was split into Sega Master Force. Both titles featured a G-Force section. Sega Master Force was aimed at the younger market; the magazine retained the visual appearance of Sega Force. Six issues of Sega Master Force were published, each featuring 68 pages. Sega Force Mega was marketed as a grown-up games publication that would better compete with Future's MEGA magazine; the first issues were produced at Europress Impact, but the magazine was outsourced to a company located in Newton Abbot, while Impact staff moved on to a new magazine, Mega Machines. Each issue of Sega Force Mega featured 100 pages, consisting of news features, reviews, G-Force and a buyers guide. Six issues were published along with a ` special' seventh issue that included news.
The seventh, what would turn out to be the final, issue of Sega Force Mega was dubbed a "Sega Force Special". The 132-page magazine featured reprints of reviews that had appeared in the previous six issues of Sega Force Mega and Sega Master Force; the preview of Sonic Chaos for the Master System was updated to provide a game rating. In the editorial, Nick Roberts indicated that Sega Force Mega would be'back to normal' in the following month, but did not mention Sega Master Force. However, issue 8 failed to appear and it was learned that all of Impact's magazines were closed. Video game journalism Magazine Video game