Northern Vietnam is one of the three geographical regions within Vietnam. Of the three geographical regions, the oldest is Northern Vietnam, where the Vietnamese culture originated over 2,000 years ago in the Red River Delta, though Vietnamese people spread south into the Mekong Delta. Northern Vietnam includes 3 administrative regions. ^† Municipality Of all 25 First Tier units, 2 are municipalities and 23 are provinces. Central Vietnam Southern Vietnam
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim
Emperor Gaozu of Han
Emperor Gaozu of Han, born Liu Bang, was the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty, reigning from 202 – 195 BCE. "Gaozu of Han" is his temple name, meaning "The High Ancestor of Han". Liu Bang was one of the few dynasty founders in Chinese history, born in a peasant family. Before coming to power, Liu Bang served as a minor patrol officer for the Qin dynasty in his home town Pei County, within the conquered state of Chu. With the First Emperor's death and the Qin Empire's subsequent political chaos, Liu Bang renounced his government position and became an anti-Qin rebel leader, he won the race against fellow rebel leader Xiang Yu to invade the Qin heartland and forced the surrender of the last Qin ruler in 206 BCE. After the fall of the Qin, Xiang Yu, as the de facto chief of the rebel forces, divided the former Qin Empire into the Eighteen Kingdoms, Liu Bang was forced to accept the poor and remote Bashu region with the title "King of Han". Within the year, Liu Bang broke out with his army and conquered the Three Qins, starting a civil war known as the Chu–Han Contention as various forces battled for supremacy over China.
In 202 BCE, Liu Bang emerged victorious following the Battle of Gaixia, unified most of China under his control, established the Han dynasty with himself as the founding emperor. During his reign, Liu Bang reduced taxes and corvée, promoted Confucianism, suppressed revolts by the lords of non-Liu vassal states, among many other actions, he initiated the policy of heqin to maintain a de jure peace between the Han Empire and the Xiongnu after losing the Battle of Baideng in 200 BCE. He was succeeded by his son, Liu Ying. In imperial Han myth, Liu Bang was a descendant of the mythical Emperor Yao, who descended from the Yellow Emperor, it was a common practice among many ancient Chinese noble families to claim descent from the mythical Yellow Emperor, in order to proclaim divine ruling legitimacy. Liu Bang was born to a peasant family in Zhongyang Village, Feng Township, Pei County in the state of Chu during the late years of the Warring States period, his parents' names were not recorded in history.
According to legend, before Liu Bang's birth, his mother was caught in a rainstorm and took shelter under a bridge. At that moment, lightning struck and the sky darkened. Liu Bang's father saw a dragon hovering above her, she became pregnant and gave birth to Liu Bang. It was subsequently recorded that the young Liu Bang was outspoken, charismatic and of great generosity and forbearance. However, he enjoyed loafing, disliked reading, showed no interest in farming and manual labour and ran into trouble with the law, hence his father called him a "little rascal" for his lazy lifestyle. Liu Bang depended on his brother's family for food and lodging; when he grew older, he became a good friend and live-in companion of a former retainer of Lord Xinling named Zhang Er, who, at the time, was the magistrate of the nearby Waihuang County. After Qin conquered Chu, Zhang Er went into hiding, Liu Bang returned to his own home town, he was recommended and appointed as the local sheriff at Sishui Ting in Pei County, working under the supervision of his close friends Xiao He and Cao Shen, who helped cover up his delinquent behaviours.
He forged close relationships with most of the local county bureaucrats, earned himself a small reputation in the district. Liu Bang was once sent for statute labour in the capital Xianyang, encountered the First Emperor going on an inspection tour around the nation. Awed by the majestic sight of the royal convoy, he exclaimed, "Alas, this is how a great man should be!" One day, Lü Wen, a wealthy and influential member of the gentry from Shanfu County, who had moved to Pei County, was putting on a feast to host the local elites. Xiao He, in charge of helping Lü Wen collect gifts from the visitors, announced that "those who do not offer more than 1,000 coins worth of gifts shall be seated outside the hall". Liu Bang went there without bringing any money and said, "I offer 10,000 coins." Lü Wen saw Liu Bang and was so impressed with him on first sight, that he stood up and welcomed Liu into the hall to sit beside him, despite Xiao He telling him that Liu Bang was not being serious. Lü Wen chatted with Liu Bang, said, "I used to predict fortunes for many people but I have never before seen someone so exceptional like you."
He offered his daughter Lü Zhi's hand in marriage to Liu Bang. After they were wed, Lü Zhi bore Liu Bang a daughter. Liu Bang was tasked with escorting a group of convicts to Mount Li to build the First Emperor's mausoleum; when some prisoners escaped during the journey, Liu Bang feared for his life because allowing convicts to escape was a capital offence under Qin law. He released the remaining prisoners and became a fugitive; some of the convicts he released were so touched. In legend, they encountered a gigantic white serpent which killed some people with its poisonous breath. Liu Bang, while drunk, slew the serpent that night and encountered an old woman weeping by the road the next morning; when Liu Bang's men asked her why she was crying, she replied, "My child, the White Emperor's son, has been slain by the son of the Red Emperor." She disappeared mysteriously. After hearing the o
An Dương Vương
An Dương Vương is the title of Thục Phán, who ruled over the kingdom of Âu Lạc from 257 to 207 BC. As the leader of the Âu Việt tribes, he defeated and seized the throne from the last Hùng king of the state of Văn Lang and united its people–known as the Lạc Việt—with the Âu Việt. In 208 BC, the capital Cổ Loa was attacked and the imperial citadel ransacked. An Dương Vương committed suicide. According to Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư and Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mục, Thục Phán was a prince of the state of Shu, sent by his father first to explore what are now the southern Chinese provinces of Guangxi and Yunnan and second to move their people to modern-day northern Vietnam during the invasion of the Qin dynasty. However, this story is illogical, as Shu was conquered in 316BC and Thục Phán lived between 257-207BC; some modern Vietnamese believe. Thục Phán assembled an army and defeated the 18th dynasty of the Hùng king, the last line of rulers of the Hồng Bàng dynasty of Văn Lang, around 257 BC.
He proclaimed himself An Dương Vương and renamed Văn Lang as Âu Lạc after the names of the conquering and conquered peoples. He established his fortress and new capital on a rise above the Red River valley at Co Loa in present-day Hanoi's Dong Anh district, about 16 kilometers northeast of downtown. There is not much written about how the new Âu Lạc was administered and organized. Nonetheless, based on legendary records, he is assumed to have been an astute and significant figure, he was a talented general who knew how to exploit the confusion and turmoil in China during that period, not only to grab a piece of land for himself but to secure his state's prosperity and survival. Around that same time, various states were fighting for control of China; the Qin state rose to power and unified China under Emperor Qin Shi Huang. While Qin Shi Huang ordered the construction of the Great Wall, An Dương Vương had begun the construction of a spiral fortress called Cổ Loa Citadel to defend against invasions.
After Thục Phán defeated the last Hùng king and ascended to the throne as An Dương Vương, he renamed Văn Lang to Âu Lạc and established Cổ Loa Citadel as the new capital. He saw the geographic importance of Cổ Loa. On two of its sides, Cổ Loa was surrounded by impenetrable forests. There was a river flowing by. No one knows why An Dương Vương favored the spiral, shell-like shape of Cổ Loa Citadel, but legend has it that its construction was tough and difficult to complete; each time it seemed near completion, it was undone at night by a horde of evil spirits. An Dương Vương burnt incense, made offerings, evoked the gods to help him. One night, in a dream, an old and frail man with long, white hair came to him and told him the only person who could help him build his citadel was a golden turtle that lived somewhere around Cổ Loa. A few days while sitting in a boat on the river and thinking about the meaning of his dream, a giant golden turtle emerged from the water; the golden turtle told An Dương Vương that he would need one of its claws in order to accomplish his plan.
Pulling out one of its claws and throwing it to An Dương Vương, the turtle vanished. An Dương Vương had Cao Lỗ, his weaponry engineer, build a crossbow incorporating this claw which could shoot thousands of arrows at once. Indeed, right after obtaining this claw, An Dương Vương saw his fortunes change, his capital started taking shape. His kingdom soon was coveted by neighboring states. Among one of those who coveted his territory was Zhao Tuo, a Qin general who refused to surrender to the newly established Han Dynasty. For a period of ten years around 217 to 207 BC, Triệu Đà attempted many invasions to conquer Âu Lạc but failed each time due to An Dương Vương's military skills and defense tactics. Triệu Đà, having been beaten several times, devised a new plan, he negotiated a peace treaty with Âu Lạc. He determined to find out, he went so far as to propose marriage between An Dương Vương’s daughter, Princess Mỵ Châu and his son Trọng Thủy. In time Triệu Đà found out through his daughter-in-law Mỵ Châu that An Dương Vương had a magic crossbow that made him invincible.
Triệu Đà he told his son Trọng Thủy to sneak into his father-in-law's palace and steal this "magic crossbow", replacing it with a fake. Triệu Đà, with the magic crossbow in his hands, launched a new attack on his foe and in-law An Dương Vương; this time, Cổ Loa fortress fell into Triệu Đà's hands. An Dương Vương grabbed Mỵ Châu, his only daughter, fled the scene of the battle, he rode to the river and encountered the giant golden turtle, which told An Dương Vương, “The enemy is sitting right behind you!” Angered by his own daughter's betrayal, the king slew his daughter. He jumped into the river with the giant golden turtle. Trọng Thủy, searching for his beloved wife, arrived a few minutes at the scene; the body of his beloved wife was lying in a pool of blood and his father-in-law was nowhere to be seen. In accordance with conjugal fidelity and devotion, he drew his sword and killed himself as well, in order to be with his wife forever in eternity. In another version Trọng Thủy after discovering Mị Châu's body, he took her home.
When Trọng Thủy had Âu Lạc, he couldn't feel happy and missed Mị C
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, Singapore, Philippines and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing or clan names, shi or lineage names. Chinese family names are patrilineal. Women do not change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong. Traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous; the colloquial expressions laobaixing and bǎixìng are used in Chinese to mean "ordinary folks", "the people", or "commoners". Prior to the Warring States period, only the ruling families and the aristocratic elite had surnames. There was a difference between clan names or xing and lineage names or shi. Xing were surnames held by the noble clans, they are composed of a nü radical, taken by some as evidence they originated from matriarchal societies based on maternal lineages. Another hypothesis has been proposed by sinologist Léon Vandermeersch upon observation of the evolution of characters in oracular scripture from the Shang dynasty through the Zhou.
The "female" radical seems to appear at the Zhou period next to Shang sinograms indicating an ethnic group or a tribe. This combination seems to designate a female and could mean "lady of such or such clan"; the structure of the xing sinogram could reflect the fact that in the royal court of Zhou, at least in the beginning, only females were called by their birth clan name, while the men were designated by their title or fief. Prior to the Qin dynasty China was a fengjian society; as fiefdoms were divided and subdivided among descendants, so additional sub-surnames known as shi were created to distinguish between noble lineages according to seniority, though in theory they shared the same ancestor. In this way, a nobleman would hold a xing; the difference between xing and shi was blurring for women since the Spring and Autumn period. After the states of China were unified by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BC, surnames spread to the lower classes. Many shi surnames survive to the present day. According to Kiang Kang-Hu, there are 18 sources from which Chinese surnames may be derived, while others suggested at least 24.
These may be names associated with a ruling dynasty such as the various titles and names of rulers and dynasty, or they may be place names of various territories, towns and specific locations, the title of official posts or occupations, or names of objects, or they may be derived from the names of family members or clans, in a few cases, names of contempt given by a ruler. The following are some of the common sources: Xing: These were reserved for the central lineage of the royal family, with collateral lineages taking their own shi; the traditional description was what were known as the "Eight Great Xings of High Antiquity", namely Jiāng, Jī, Yáo, Yíng, Sì, Yún, Guī and Rèn, though some sources quote Jí as the last one instead of Rèn. Of these xings, only Jiang and Yao have survived in their original form to modern days as occurring surnames. Royal decree by the Emperor, such as Kuang. State name: Many nobles and commoners took the name of their state, either to show their continuing allegiance or as a matter of national and ethnic identity.
These are some of the most common Chinese surnames. Name of a fief or place of origin: Fiefdoms were granted to collateral branches of the aristocracy and it was natural as part of the process of sub-surnaming for their names to be used. An example is Marquis of Ouyangting, whose descendants took the surname Ouyang. There are some two hundred examples of this identified of two-character surnames, but few have survived to the present. Names of an ancestor: Like the previous example, this was a common origin with close to 500 or 600 examples, 200 of which are two-character surnames. An ancestor's courtesy name would be used. For example, Yuan Taotu took the second character of his grandfather's courtesy name Boyuan as his surname. Sometimes titles granted to ancestors could be taken as surnames. Seniority within the family: In ancient usage, the characters of meng, shu and ji were used to denote the first, second and fourth eldest sons in a family; these were sometimes adopted as surnames. Of these, Meng is the best known.
Occupation From official positions, such as Shǐ, Jí, Líng, Cāng, Kù, Jiàn, Shàngguān, Tàishǐ, Zhōngháng, Yuèzhèng, in the case of Shang's "Five Officials", namely Sīmǎ, Sītú, Sīkōng, Sīshì and Sīkòu.
Héyuán is a prefecture-level city of Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. At the 2010 census, its population was 2,950,195 whom 903,871 lived in the built-up area made of Yuancheng urban District and Dongyuan County being urbanized. Zijin County itself is being conurbated in the agglomeration; the majority of the people are Hakka. The city includes the largest lake in Guangdong: Xinfengjiang Reservoir; the literal meaning of the city's name is "origin of the river". It has been titled as the "Hometown of the Dinosaur in China", due to the thousands of dinosaur egg fossils that have been unearthed in its vicinity. Heyuan is located in the north-east region of Guangdong, upper reach of Dong River at its confluence with the Xingeng River, its latitude spans 23° 10'–24° 50' N, longitude 114° 13'–115° 35' E. It borders Ganzhou to the north, Meizhou to the east and Shaoguan to the west. Heyuan is a regional hub that connects the coastal areas of the interior countryside. Heyuan is fertile land.
There are 1,000 km2 of cultivated land, 13,600 km2 of hilly land, 640 square kilometres of water area. Many mineral deposits such as iron ore, tin, fluorite are found in Heyuan. Heyuan has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate, with short, mild to warm winters, long, humid summers. Winter becomes progressively wetter and cloudier. Spring is overcast and rainy, while summer continues to be rainy though is much sunnier. Autumn is dry; the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 13.1 °C in January to 28.5 °C in July, the annual mean is 21.83 °C. The annual rainfall is 1,927 mm, is delivered in bulk from April to June. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 23% in March to 55% in October and November, the city receives 1,842 hours of bright sunshine annually; the city's museum boasts the Guinness World Record for the largest collection of dinosaur eggs, with 10,008 individual samples as of 2004. Dinosaur skeletons and fossilized footprints have been found nearby. In the great majority of Heyuan areas, Hakka Chinese is in general use.
In the greater part of areas in the city, Dongyuan County, Lianping County, Heping County, Longchuan County etc. it belongs to the Yuezhong dialect group, while in Zijin County and part of Longchuan County, it belongs to the Yuetai dialect group. In some areas on the banks of the Dongjiang, Dongjiang Bendihua is in general use, its classification is disputed between the Huihe division of Yue. Heyuan City administers Yuancheng District, Dongyuan County, Heping County, Longchuan County, Zijin County and Lianping County; the total area is 15,800 square kilometres. Heyuan city and its districts have a population of 3.2194 million. The municipality seat is in Yuancheng District. Heyuan city is a major economic and transportation hub for the Beijing-Kowloon Railway and the Guangzhou-Meizhou-Shantou Railway which crosses the city. There is a marshalling station at Longchuan, the biggest in southern China. State Highway 105 and 205 run through the city. Dong River which Heyuan City is located in plays an important strategic waterway which allows huge cargo ships to transport goods to Huizhou and Guangzhou.
Heyuan city is the major producer of Chinese kiwi fruit dried mushrooms of Jiulian, Hakka brewed liquor, Xinfengjiang pure water and mineral water, bamboo mats, sweet tangerines, green tea, pot culture. Heyuan is served by the Hong Kong-Beijing Jingjiu railway with two stations: Heyuan railway station and Longchuan railway station. Heyuan City has a number of tourist attractions. There is a tall fountain located in Xinfengjiang forest park. There are scenic areas such as the first big artificial lake. Longchuan county is home to scenic spots in Shuikeng; the Neiguan Mountains and rivers are located in Lianping county. In Dongyuan county, there are scenic spots at Huanglong Zhangxi. Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia Tieling, People's Republic of China http://www.heyuan.gov.cn/website/index.jsp The history of Heyuan
Standard Chinese known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese, or Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese, the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order, it has more initial consonants but final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There are two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters.
Many characters are identical between the two systems. In Chinese, the standard variety is known as: 普通话 in the People's Republic of China, as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Standard Chinese is commonly referred to by generic names for "Chinese", notably 中文. In total, there have been known over 20 various names for the language; the term Guoyu had been used by non-Han rulers of China to refer to their languages, but in 1909 the Qing education ministry applied it to Mandarin, a lingua franca based on northern Chinese varieties, proclaiming it as the new "national language". The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history, it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or "common tongue/speech", was conceptually different from the Guoyu, or "national language"; the former was a national prestige variety. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different.
Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called "the common speech of the modern man", the spoken language adopted as a national lingua franca by conventional usage; the use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun influenced the People's Republic of China government to adopt that term to describe Mandarin in 1956. Prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the official term for Standard Chinese; the term Guoyu however, is less used in the PRC, because declaring a Beijing dialect-based standard to be the national language would be deemed unfair to speakers of other varieties and to the ethnic minorities. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca. During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition, Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.
Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation" simply meant "Chinese language", was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name "Huayu" to refer to Mandarin; this name avoids choosing a side between the alternative names of Putonghua and Guoyu, which came to have political significance after their usages diverged along political lines between the PRC and the ROC. It incorporates the notion that Mandarin is not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live. Hanyu, or "language of the Han people", is another umbrella term used for Chinese. However, it has confusingly two different meanings: Standard Chinese; this term, as well as Hànzú, is a modern concept. A related concept is Hànzì; the term "Mandarin" is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire. The Chinese term is obsolete as a name for the standard language, but is used by linguists to refer to the major group of Mandarin dialects spoken natively across most of northern and southwestern China.
In English, "Mandarin" may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name "Modern Standard Mandarin" is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the shared language from other northern and historic dialects; the Chinese have different languages in different provinces, to such an extent