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Zhores Alferov

Zhores Ivanovich Alferov was a Soviet and Russian physicist and academic who contributed to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics. He shared the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for the development of the semiconductor heterojunction for optoelectronics, he became a politician in his life, serving in the lower house of the Russian parliament, the State Duma, as a member of the communist party since 1995. Alferov was born in Vitebsk, Byelorussian SSR, Soviet Union, to a Belarusian father, Ivan Karpovich Alferov, a factory manager, a Jewish mother, Anna Vladimirovna Rosenblum, he was named after French socialist Jean Jaurès while his older brother was named Marx after Karl Marx. Alferov started Belarusian Polytechnic Academy. In 1952, he received his B. S. from the V. I. Ulyanov Electrotechnical Institute in Leningrad. Starting in 1953, Alferov worked in the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences. From the Institute, he earned several scientific degrees: a Candidate of Sciences in Technology in 1961 and a Doctor of Sciences in Physics and Mathematics in 1970.

Alferov served as the director of the Ioffe Institute from 1987 to 2003. He was elected a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1972, a full member in 1979. From 1989, he was Vice-President of the USSR Academy of Sciences and President of its Saint Petersburg Scientific Center. In 1995 he became a member of the State Duma on the list of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. Starting at Ioffe Institute in 1953, Alferov worked with a group led by Vladimir Tuchkevich, who became director of the Ioffe Institute in 1967, on planar semiconductor amplifiers for use in radio receivers; these planar semiconductor amplifiers would be referred to as transistors in the present day. Alferov's contribution included work on germanium diodes for use as a rectifier. In the early 1960s, Alferov organized an effort at Ioffe Institute to develop semiconductor heterostructures. Semiconductor heterojunctions transistors enabled higher frequency use than their homojunction predecessors, this capability plays a key role in modern mobile phone and satellite communications.

Alferov and colleagues worked on GaAs and AlAs III-V heterojunctions. A particular focus was the use of heterojunctions to create semiconductor lasers capable of lasing at room temperature. In 1963, Alferov filed a patent application proposing double-heterostructure lasers. In 1966, Alferov's lab created the first lasers based on heterostructures, although they did not lase continuously. In 1968, Alferov and coworkers produced the first continuous-wave semiconductor heterojunction laser operating at room temperature; this achievement came a month ahead of Izuo Hayashi and Morton Panish of Bell Labs producing a continuous-wave room-temperature heterojunction laser. It was for this work that Alferov received the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Herbert Kroemer, "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics". In the 1960s and 1970s Alferov continued his work on the physics and technology of semiconductor heterostructures in his lab at the Ioffe Institute.

Alferov's investigations of injection properties of semiconductors and his contributions to the development of lasers, solar cells, LEDs, epitaxy processes, led to the creation of modern heterojunction physics and electronics. The development of semiconductor heterojunctions revolutionized semiconductor design, had a range of immediate commercial applications including LEDs, barcode readers and CDs. Hermann Grimmeiss of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which awards Nobel prizes, said: "Without Alferov, it would not be possible to transfer all the information from satellites down to the Earth or to have so many telephone lines between cities."Alferov had an messianic conception of heterostructures, writing: "Many scientists have contributed to this remarkable progress, which not only determines in large measure the future prospects of solid state physics but in a certain sense affects the future of human society as well." In 1987, Alferov became the fifth director of the Ioffe Institute.

In 1989, Alferov gained the administrative position of chairman of the Leningrad Scientific Center, now referred to as the St. Petersburg Scientific Center. In the Leningrad region, this scientific center is an overarching organization comprising 70 institutions, organizations and scientific societies; as a director and chairman, Alferov sought to ensure support for scientific research through a time of changing political and economic conditions. Alferov worked to foster relationships between early educational institutions and scientific research institutions to train the next generation of scientists, citing Peter the Great's vision for the Russian Academy of Sciences to be organized with a scientific research core in close contact with a gymnasium. In 1987, Alferov and colleagues at the Ioffe Institute established a secondary school in Saint Petersburg, the School of Physics and Technology, under the umbrella of the Ioffe charter. In 1997 Alferov founded the Research and Education Center at the Ioffe Institute and in 2002, this center became a new university, the Saint Petersburg Academic University, after gaining a charter to award masters and PhD degrees.

In 2009, the Saint Petersburg Academic University was reorganized to combine the secondary school, School of Physics and Technology, within the organizational structure of the univer

Cibodas Botanical Garden

Cibodas Botanical Gardens is a 84.99 hectares botanical garden on the slopes of Mount Gede, located in the Cibodas subdistrict of West Java, Indonesia. It is operated by the Indonesian Institute of Sciences; the garden was founded in 1852 by the Dutch botanist Johannes Elias Teijsmann as a branch of the Bogor Botanical Gardens, its layout was completed under Rudolph Scheffer in years. The gardens were built at a high altitude; the garden is 1,300–1,425 metres above mean sea level, with an average temperature across the year of 20.06 °C, an average humidity of 80.82%. The gardens are the first place that Cinchona trees were grown in Indonesia for quinine production in 1854; the trees was brought to Java by Justus Carl Hasskarl from South America and was experimented in the garden. Plants which are exotic to Indonesia, such as Eucalyptus from Australia, Conifers from Europe, others are cultivated in the area. There are 10,792 living specimens in the garden, including 320 orchids, 289 cacti, 22 succulent plants, 216 algae, 103 ferns, 1162 garden plant species that live within the proximity of the botanic garden.

Only 114 of the plant species present in the garden are native to West Java. Its herbarium contains 4,852 preserved specimens of plants; the collections are divided into indoor sections. The indoor section houses plants within glasshouses, including orchids; the outdoor section is divided into a sakura garden, algae garden, rhododendron garden, fern garden, medicine garden. In April 2014, the botanic garden opened a new section, the House of Nepenthes, containing 55 species and 47 hybrid species of nepenthes; the Cibodas bryophyte park, or Taman Lumut Cibodas, is part of the Cibodas Botanical Garden and is located between Mount Gede and Mount Gede Pangrango National Park. It was built in 2004 and opened to the public on April 11, 2006, on the occasion of the 154th anniversary of the Cibodas Botanical Gardens; the 1,500 m2 garden was designed to resemble the natural habitat of mosses. Natural shade is provided by the shade of native Indonesian plants that grow around it to give the desired humid conditions.

List of botanical gardens Guide to Cibodas Botanic Garden

Half Empty Saddles

Half Empty Saddles is the 87th animated cartoon short subject in the Woody Woodpecker series. Released theatrically on April 21, 1958, the film was produced by Walter Lantz Productions and distributed by Universal International. In the desert, Woody Woodpecker, riding a horse, is gaily strumming a guitar and singing a song of loot long lost. Only he has the map of its location. Woody enters the ghost town of Paradise and studies the map. "X" marks the spot in the Snake-Eye Saloon. Unbeknown to Woody, foul villain Dapper Denver Dooley, hiding in a barrel behind him, sees the map over his shoulder. Woody enters the saloon followed by Dooley. Woody finds a strongbox. Dooley grabs and opens the box, he has his nose caught in a mousetrap. Woody recaptures the box and runs with it, only to lose it to Dooley again when Woody runs into a closed door; the box changes hands many times as Woody and Dooley, in a battle of wits and trickery, fight for its possession. Woody gains permanent possession of the box when Dooley, on a small wooden horse with a large rocket attached to its pole, is shot into space as both Woody and the horse give the famous Woody laugh.

Cooke, Komorowski, Shakarian and Tatay, Jack. "1958". The Walter Lantz Cartune Encyclopedia

Ferncliff Peninsula Natural Area

Ferncliff Peninsula Natural Area is a 100-acre peninsula with a unique habitat with many rare and unusual, for Pennsylvania, plants. It is part of Ohiopyle State Park, near Pennsylvania, it was designated a National Natural Landmark in November 1973 and was named a State Park Natural Area in 1992. These acts will prevent all further development in the peninsula area; the peninsula is created by a meander in the Youghiogheny River which flows north into Pennsylvania from West Virginia and Maryland carrying seeds from that region. The warmer microclimate inside the river gorge allows these plants to survive, it is a good example of a late successional forest in the Allegheny Mountains. The edge of Ferncliff Peninsula Natural Area is rimmed with a 2 mile loop hiking trail of moderate difficulty that features prehistoric plant fossils along the eastern edge near Ohiopyle Falls. Ohiopyle State Park Map of Ohiopyle Park, including Ferncliff

James E. Cobb

James Edward Cobb was a U. S. Representative from Alabama. Born in Thomaston, Cobb attended the public schools, was graduated from Emory College, Georgia, in June 1856, he studied law. He was practiced, he moved to Texas in 1857. He entered the Confederate States Army in 1861 as lieutenant in Company F, Fifth Texas Regiment, served in the Army of Northern Virginia until he was made prisoner at the Battle of Gettysburg. After his release settled in Tuskegee and practiced law until 1874. Circuit judge from 1874 to 1886, he was before qualifying was elected to Congress. Cobb was elected as a Democrat to the three succeeding Congresses. Presented credentials as a Democratic Member-elect to the Fifty-fourth Congress and served from March 4, 1895, to April 21, 1896, when he was succeeded by Albert T. Goodwyn, who contested his election, he resumed the practice of law in Alabama. He served as delegate to the State constitutional convention in 1901, he died in East Las Vegas, San Miguel County, N. Mex. June 2, 1903.

He was interred in Evergreen Cemetery, Alabama. United States Congress. "James E. Cobb". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website


Bukowsko is a village in Sanok County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland. It's in the Bukowsko Upland mountains, parish in loco, located near the towns of Medzilaborce and Palota. During the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth it was in Lesser Poland prowincja. Bukowsko is the cultural centre of the Gmina Bukowsko, it is crossed by the rail road connecting it with Slovakia. It is the private sector and service industries that are developing at this time, it is home to the Uniwersytet Ludowy, opened in 2005, which contains many artworks and effects of the folk handworks inspiration. Bukowsko is situated in the poorest region of Poland. Settled in prehistoric times, the southern-eastern Poland region, now Podkarpacie was overrun in pre-Roman times by various tribes, including the Celts and Vandals. After the fall of the Roman Empire, of which most of south-eastern Poland was part, the area was invaded by Hungarians and Slavs; the region subsequently became part of the Great Moravian state. Upon the invasion of the Hungarian tribes into the heart of the Great Moravian Empire around 899, the Lendians of the area declared their allegiance to Hungarian Empire.

The region became a site of contention between Poland, Kievan Rus and Hungary starting in at least the 9th century. This area was mentioned for the first time in 981, when Volodymyr the Great of Kievan Rus took the area over on the way into Poland. In 1018 it returned to Poland, 1031 back to Rus, in 1340 Casimir III of Poland recovered it. In historical records the village was first mentioned in 1361. During 966–1018, 1340–1772 and during 1918–39 Bukowsko was part of Poland. While during 1772–1918 it belonged to Austrian empire Austrian-Hungarian empire when double monarchy was introduced in Austria; this part of Poland was controlled by Austria for 120 years. At that time the area was known as Galicia, it was given the Magdeburg law in 1768. In 1785 the village lands comprised 6.5 km2. There were 700 Catholics. In 1864 Rabbi Shlomo Halberstam was appointed as rabbi of the Jewish community of Bukowsko, he held this position until 1879. After the Nazis had captured the town, Jewish homes and shops were robbed by the civilians from neighbouring towns.

In the spring of 1942, 804 Jews of Bukowsko and over 300 of the surrounding villages were put into a ghetto. Out of that number over 100 were shot on the local cemetery; the rest were transported to the camp in Zwangsarbeitslager Zaslaw. None of the prayer houses survived the war. Only a few matzevahs remained on the cemetery. Bukowsko had a labour camp which existed from August to October 1942; the Jews, 60 on average, carried out road construction. An April 1946 New York Times article reported that on April 4, 1946, 389 of the 400 buildings in the village were burned down and 3,000 people were made homeless by a force of Ukrainian nationalists and German deserters operating in the area who had a few days earlier demanded, but not received, a payment of 1 million złoty; the village was burned in whole or in part January and November 1946. Only over a dozen years after the war the village started to rebuild. 1899: 1,893 Poles, 833 Jews 1932: 2,325 Poles, 650 Jews, 5 Ukrainians 2005: 1,500 Poles The municipality lies at an altitude of 482 metres above sea level and covers an area of 8.3 square kilometres.

It has a population of about 1500 people. The village of Bukowsko lies in a valley of the Sanoczek river in southeastern Poland; the hills of the Bieszczady mountain range are typical for this countryside. Time zone: UTC+1/SummerUTC+2 Village parts: Dział. Bukowsko is twinned with: Topoľovka, Slovakia Maizières-lès-Metz, France Rabbi Shlomo Halberstam, first Bobover Rebbe Rabbi Ben Zion Halberstam, second Bobover Rebbe Feliks Kiryk Adam Didur Anastazy Jakub Pankiewicz Julian Krzyżanowski Alojzy Ehrlich, European walking route E8 Prof. Adam Fastnacht. Slownik Historyczno-Geograficzny Ziemi Sanockiej w Średniowieczu, Kraków, 2002, ISBN 83-88385-14-3. Jerzy Zuba. "W Gminie Bukowsko." Roksana, 2004, ISBN 83-7343-150-0. English translation, Deborah Greenlee, Editor, 2005, Arlington, TX 76016. Geographical Dictionary of the Kingdom of Poland and other Slavic Lands Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich. Warszawa. 1876. Bernard Schwerd trip to Bukowsko Karlikow Ski-park Protestant parish in Wola Piotrowa Caritas in Zboiska Castle in Zboiska Bukowsko shtetl Bukowsto shtetl - story