Lviv Oblast is an oblast in western Ukraine. The administrative center of the oblast is the city of Lviv. Population: 2,534,174 ; the oblast was created as part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic on December 4, 1939 following the Soviet invasion of Poland. The territory of the former Drohobych Oblast was incorporated into the Lviv Oblast in 1959; the oblast's strategic position at the heart of central Europe and as the gateway to the Carpathians has caused it to change hands many times over the centuries. It was ruled variously by Great Moravia, Kievan Rus', was independent as the state of Galicia-Volhynia, ruled by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, West Ukrainian People's Republic and Poland, when it was part of the Lwów Voivodeship of the Second Republic of Poland; the region's dominant Ukrainian population declared the area to be a part of an independent West Ukrainian National Republic in November 1918 — June 1919, but this endured only briefly. Local autonomy was provided in international treaties but on those were not honoured by the Polish government and the area experienced much ethnic tension between the Polish and Ukrainian population.
The region and its capital city take their name from the time of Galicia-Volhynia, when Daniel of Galicia, the King of Rus', founded Lviv. During this time, the general region around Lviv was known as Red Ruthenia; the region only became part of the Soviet Union under the terms of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in 1939, when it was annexed to the Ukrainian SSR. It was occupied by Nazi Germany from 1941 to 1944, when all local Jews were killed, remained in Soviet hands after World War II as was arranged during the Teheran and Yalta conferences. Local Poles were expelled and Ukrainians expelled from Poland arrived. Given its historical development, Lviv Oblast is one of the least Russified and Sovietized parts of Ukraine, with much of its Polish and Habsburg heritage still visible today; the region is notable for having declared independence from the central government during the 2014 Euromaidan protests. The terrain of Lviv Oblast is varied; the southern part is occupied by the low Beskyd mountain chains running parallel to each other from northwest to southeast and covered with secondary coniferous forests as part of the Eastern Carpathians.
North from there are the wide upper Dniester river valley and much smaller upper San River valley. These rivers have flat bottoms covered with alluvial deposits, are susceptible to floods. Between these valleys and Beskyd lies the Precarpathian upland covered with deciduous forests, with well-known mineral spa resorts. It's the area of one of the earliest industrial petroleum and gas extraction; these deposits are all but depleted by now. In the central part of the region lie Roztocze and part of the Podolia uplands. Rich sulphur deposits were mined here during the Soviet era. Roztocze is densely forested, while Opillia and Podolia are densely populated and covered by arable land. In the central-north part of the region lies the Small Polesia lowland, geographically isolated from the rest of Polesia but with similar terrain and landscapes; the far North of the region lies on the Volhynia upland, covered with loess. The climate of Lviv Oblast is moderately humid; the average January temperatures range from −7 °C in the Carpathians to −3 °C in the Dniester and San River valleys while in July the average temperatures are from 14–15 °C in the Carpathians to 16–17 °C in Roztocze and 19 °C in the lower part of the Dniester valley.
The average annual precipitation is 600–650 mm in the lowlands, 650–750 mm in the highlands and up to 1,000 mm in the Carpathians, with the majority of precipitation occurring in summer. Prolonged droughts are uncommon. Severe winds during storms can cause damage in the highlands; the climate is favourable for the cultivation of sugar beets, winter wheat, rye, cabbage and for dairy farming. It is still too cold to cultivate maize, grapes, watermelon or peaches in Lviv Oblast. In the Carpathians conditions are favourable for Alpine skiing 3–4 months a year. Chairmen of the Executive CommitteeRepresentative of the PresidentHeads of the Administration Lviv Oblast is administratively subdivided into 20 raions, as well as 9 city which are directly subordinate to the oblast government: Boryslav, Drohobych, Novyi Rozdil, Stryi and the administrative center of the oblast, Lviv. Male/female ratio: 48%/52% Nationalities: 94.8% of the region's population are Ukrainians. Notably, the comparison of the 2001 Ukrainian census, with the last Soviet census of 1989 reveals that in those 12 years the number of Poles in the Lviv Oblast went down by 29.7 percent which, in the opinion of "Wspólnota Polska" Society defies explanation, could be attributed to the intensive Ukrainization of the Roman Catholic Church.
0-14 years: 15.7% (male 202,923/fem
Holy Trinity Church, Zhovkva
Wooden Holy Trinity Church was built in suburb of Zhovkva, Ukraine in 1720 on the place of a church that burned down in 1717. The structure consists of a brick sacristy. There is an iconostasis consisting of about 50 icons painted by the masters of Zhovkva Painting and Carving School of Ivan Rutkovych in the beginning of 18th century; the iconostasis is made from linden wood carved by Ignatiy Stobenskyj. In 1978–79 iconostasis was restored. Now the church belongs to the UGCC. On June 21, 2013 during the 37th Session of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee in Cambodja the Holy Trinity Church was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List among 16 wooden tserkvas of Carpathian Region in Poland and Ukraine
West Ukrainian People's Republic
The West Ukrainian People's Republic was a short-lived republic that existed from November 1918 to July 1919 in eastern Galicia. It included the cities of Lviv, Przemyśl, Kolomyia and Stanislaviv, claimed parts of Bukovina and Carpathian Ruthenia. Politically, the Ukrainian National Democratic Party dominated the legislative assembly, guided by varying degrees of Greek Catholic and socialist ideology. Other parties represented included the Christian Social Party; the coat of arms of the West Ukrainian People's Republic was a lion rampant or. The colours of the flag were yellow. According to the Austro-Hungarian census of 1910, the territory claimed by the West Ukrainian People's Republic had about 5.4 million people. Of these, 3,291,000 were Ukrainians, 1,351,000 were Poles, 660,000 were Jews, the rest included Rusyns, Hungarians, Czechs, Romani and others; the cities and towns of this rural region were populated by Poles and Jews, while the Ukrainians dominated the countryside. This would prove problematic for the Ukrainians, because the largest city, had a majority Polish population and was considered to be one of the most important Polish cities.
Among the largest oil reserves in Europe were near Lviv at Drohobych and Boryslav in the upper Dniester River. Rail connections to Russian-ruled Ukraine or Romania were few: Brody on a line from Lviv to the upper Styr River, Pidvolochysk on a line from Ternopil to Proskurov in Podolia, a line along the Prut from Kolomyia to Chernivtsi in Bukovina, thus the stage was set for conflict between Poland. The West Ukrainian People's Republic was proclaimed on November 1, 1918; the Ukrainian National Rada had planned to declare the West Ukrainian People's Republic on November 3, 1918 but moved the date forward to November 1 due to reports that the Polish Liquidation Committee was to transfer from Kraków to Lviv. Shortly after the republic proclaimed independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire a popular uprising took place in Lviv, where most residents were Polish and did not want to be part of a non-Polish state. A few weeks Lviv's rebellious Poles received support from Poland. On November 9 Polish forces attempted to seize the Drohobych oil fields by surprise but were driven back, outnumbered by the Ukrainians.
The resulting stalemate saw the Poles retaining control over Lviv and a narrow strip of land around a railway linking the city to Poland, while the rest of eastern Galicia remained under the control of the West Ukrainian National Republic. Meanwhile, two smaller states west of the West Ukrainian People's Republic declared independence as result of the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the Komancza Republic was an association of thirty Lemko villages, based around Komańcza in eastern Lemkivshchyna. It existed between November 4, 1918 and January 23, 1919. Being pro-Ukrainian it planned to unite with the West Ukrainian People's Republic, but was suppressed by the Polish government as part of the Polish–Ukrainian War. On December 5, 1918 the Ruska Narodna Respublika Lemkiv declared independence; the Lemko Rusyn National Republic was centered on Florynka, a village in the south-east of present-day Poland. Russophile sentiment prevailed among its inhabitants, who were opposed to a union with the West Ukrainian People's Republic and instead sought unification with Russia.
An agreement to unite western Ukraine with the rest of Ukraine was made as early as December 1, 1918. The government of the West Ukrainian People's Republic united with the Ukrainian People's Republic on January 22, 1919; this was a symbolic act, however. Since western Ukraine had a different tradition in its legal and political norms it was to be autonomous within a united Ukraine. Furthermore, western Ukrainians retained their own Ukrainian Galician government structure. Despite the formal union, the Western Ukrainian Republic and the Ukrainian People's Republic fought in separate wars; the former was preoccupied with a conflict with Poland while the latter struggled with Soviet and Russian forces. Relations between the West Ukrainian People's Republic and the Kiev-based Ukrainian People's Republic were somewhat strained; the leadership of the former tended to be more conservative in orientation. Well-versed in the culture of the Austrian parliamentary system and an orderly approach to government, they looked upon the socialist revolutionary attitude of their Kiev-based peers with some dismay and with the concern that the social unrest in the East would spread to Galicia.
The West Ukrainian troops were more disciplined while those of Kiev's Ukrainian People's Army were more chaotic and prone to committing pogroms, something opposed by the western Ukrainians. The poor discipline in Kiev's army and the insubordination of its officers shocked the Galician delegates sent to Kiev; the national movement in western Ukrainian was as strong as in other eastern European countries, the Ukrainian government was able to mobilize over 100,000 men, 40,000 of whom were battle-ready.>Ludwik Mroczka writes that despite the strength of the Ukrainian n
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria known as Galicia or Austrian Poland, was established in 1772 as a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy as a result of the First Partition of Poland. After the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, it became a Kingdom under Habsburg rule. In 1804 it became a crownland of the Austrian Empire. From 1867 it was an ethnic Pole-administered autonomous crownland under Cisleithanian Austria-Hungary, until its dissolution in 1918; the country was carved from the entire south-western part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Among the many ceremonial titles of the princes of Hungary was "ruler of Galicia and Lodomeria". Following the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Austrian Empire ceded portions of Galicia to the Russian Empire, West Galicia and Tarnopol District; the name "Galicia" is the Latinized form of a principality of the medieval Ruthenia. "Lodomeria", is a Latinized form of Volodymyr-Volynskyi, founded in the 10th century by Vladimir the Great and until the partitions of Poland was known as Volodymyr.
King of Galicia and Lodomeria was a medieval title which the King of Hungary adopted during his conquest of the region in the 12th century. This historical region in Eastern Europe is divided today between Ukraine; the nucleus of historic Galicia consists of the modern Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk regions of western Ukraine. The name of the Kingdom in its ceremonial form, in English: Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and the Grand Duchy of Kraków with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator, existed in all languages spoken there including German: Königreich Galizien und Lodomerien mit dem Großherzogtum Krakau und den Herzogtümern Auschwitz und Zator. Galician Ruthenia, Ciscarpathian Ruthenia and propaganda names known in the Russian Empire and among Russophiles of Galicia In 1772, Galicia was the largest part of the area annexed by the Habsburg Monarchy in the First Partition of Poland; as such, the Austrian region of Poland and what was to become Ukraine was known as the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria to underline the Hungarian claims to the country.
However, after the Third Partition of Poland, a large portion of the ethnically Polish lands to the west was added to the province, which changed the geographical reference of the term Galicia. Lviv served as capital of Austrian Galicia, dominated by the Polish aristocracy, despite the fact that the population of the eastern half of the province was Ukrainian, or "Ruthenian", as they were known at the time. In addition to the Polish aristocracy and gentry who inhabited all parts of Galicia, the Ruthenians in the east, there existed a large Jewish population more concentrated in the eastern parts of the province. During the first decades of Austrian rule, Galicia was governed from Vienna, many significant reforms were carried out by a bureaucracy staffed by Germans and Czechs; the aristocracy was guaranteed its rights, but these rights were circumscribed. The former serfs were no longer mere chattel, but became subjects of law and were granted certain personal freedoms, such as the right to marry without the lord's permission.
Their labour obligations were defined and limited, they could bypass the lords and appeal to the imperial courts for justice. The Eastern Rite "Uniate" Church, which served the Ruthenians, was renamed the Greek Catholic Church to bring it onto a par with the Roman Catholic Church. Although unpopular with the aristocracy, among the common folk and Ukrainian/Ruthenian alike, these reforms created a reservoir of good will toward the emperor which lasted to the end of Austrian rule. At the same time, the Austrian Empire extracted from Galicia considerable wealth and conscripted large numbers of the peasant population into its armed services. In 1815, as a result of decisions of the Congress of Vienna, the Lublin area and surrounding regions were ceded by the Austrian Empire to Congress Poland, ruled by the Tsar, the Ternopil Region, including the historical region of Southern Podolia, was returned to the Austrian Empire by Russia, which had held it since 1809; the large city of Kraków and surrounding territory also part of New or West Galicia, became the semi-autonomous Free City of Kraków unter supervision of the three powers sharing rule over Poland.
The 1820s and 1830s were a period of bureaucratic rule overseen from Vienna. Most administrative positions were filled by German-speakers, including German-speaking Czechs, although some of their children were becoming Polonized. After the failure of the November insurrection in Russian Poland in 1830–31, in which a few thousand Galician volunteers participated, many Polish refugees arrived in Galicia; the latter 1830s were rife with Polish conspiratorial organizations whose work culminated in the unsuccessful Galician insurrection of 1846, put down by the Austrians with the help of a Galician peasantry that remained loyal to the emperor. The insurrection occur
Ukrainians are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, by total population the seventh-largest nation in Europe. The Constitution of Ukraine applies the term'Ukrainians' to all its citizens; the people of Ukraine have been known as "Rusyns" and "Cossacks", among others. According to most dictionary definitions, a descriptive name for the "inhabitants of Ukraine" is Ukrainian or Ukrainian people; the ethnonym Ukrainians became accepted only in the 20th century after their territory obtained distinctive statehood in 1917. From the 14th to the 16th centuries, the Western portions of the European part of what is now known as Russia, the territories of northern Ukraine and Belarus were known as Rus', continuing the tradition of Kievan Rus'. People of these territories were called Rus or Rusyns; the Ukrainian language appeared in the 14th – 16th centuries, but at that time, it was known as Ruthenian, like its brothers. In the 16th – 17th centuries, with the establishment of the Zaporizhian Sich, the notion of Ukraine as a separate country with a separate ethnic identity came into being.
However, the ethnonym Ukrainians and the linguonym Ukrainian were used only and the people of Ukraine continued to call themselves and their language Ruthenian. After the decline of the Zaporizhian Sich and the establishment of Imperial Russian hegemony in Ukraine, Ukrainians became more known by the Russian regional name, Little Russians, with the majority of Ukrainian élites espousing Little Russian identity; this official name did not spread among the peasantry which constituted the majority of the population. Ukrainian peasants still referred to their country as Ukraine and to themselves and their language as Ruthenians/Ruthenian. With the publication of Ivan Kotliarevsky's Eneyida in 1798, which established the modern Ukrainian language, with the subsequent Romantic revival of national traditions and culture, the ethnonym Ukrainians and the notion of a Ukrainian language came into more prominence at the beginning of the 19th century and replaced the words "Rusyns" and "Ruthenian". In areas outside the control of the Russian/Soviet state until the mid-20th century, Ukrainians were known by their pre-existing names for much longer.
The appellation Ukrainians came into common usage in Central Ukraine and did not take hold in Galicia and Bukovyna until the latter part of the 19th century, in Transcarpathia until the 1930s, in the Prešov Region until the late 1940s. The modern name ukrayintsi derives from Ukrayina, a name first documented in 1187. Several scientific theories attempt to explain the etymology of the term. According to the traditional theory, it derives from the Proto-Slavic root *kraj-, which has two meanings, one meaning the homeland as in "nash rodnoi kraj", the other "edge, border", had the sense of "periphery", "borderland" or "frontier region" etc. According to some new alternative Ukrainian historians such as Hryhoriy Pivtorak, Vitaly Sklyarenko and other scholars, translate the term "u-kraine" as "in-land", "home-land" or "our-country"; the name in this context derives from the word "u-kraina" in the sense of "domestic region", "domestic land" or "country". In the last three centuries the population of Ukraine experienced periods of Polonization and Russification, but preserved a common culture and a sense of common identity.
Most ethnic Ukrainians live in Ukraine. The largest population of Ukrainians outside of Ukraine lives in Russia where about 1.9 million Russian citizens identify as Ukrainian, while millions of others have some Ukrainian ancestry. The inhabitants of the Kuban, for example, have vacillated among three identities: Ukrainian, "Cossack". 800,000 people of Ukrainian ancestry live in the Russian Far East in an area known as "Green Ukraine". According to some previous assumptions, an estimated number of 2.4 million people of Ukrainian origin live in North America. Large numbers of Ukrainians live in Brazil, Moldova, Italy, Uzbekistan, the Czech Republic and Romania. There are large Ukrainian communities in such countries as Latvia, France, Paraguay, the UK, Slovakia, Austria and the former Yugoslavia; the Ukrainian diaspora is present in more than one hundred and twenty countries of the world. The number of Ukrainians in Poland amounted to some 51,000 people in 2011. Since 2014, the country has experienced a large increase in immigration from Ukraine.
More recent data put the number of Ukrainian workers at 1.2 – 1.3 million in 2016. In the last decades of the 19th century, many Ukrainians were forced by the Tsarist autocracy to move to the Asian regions of Russia, while many of their counterpart Slavs under Austro-Hungarian rule emigrated to the New World seeking work and better economic opportunities. Today
Zamość pronounced is a city in southeastern Poland, situated in the southern part of Lublin Voivodeship, about 90 km from Lublin, 247 km from Warsaw and 60 km from the border with Ukraine. In 2014, the population was 65,149; the historical centre of Zamość was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1992, following a decision of the sixteenth ordinary session of the World Heritage Committee, held between 7 and 14 December 1992 in Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States. As described by UNESCO: Zamość is a unique example of a Renaissance town in Central Europe designed and built in accordance with the Italian theories of the "ideal town," on the basis of a plan, the result of perfect cooperation between the open-minded founder, Jan Zamoyski, the outstanding architect, Bernardo Morando. Zamość is an outstanding example of an innovative approach to town planning, combining the functions of an urban ensemble, a residence, a fortress in accordance with a implemented Renaissance concept; the result of this is a stylistically homogeneous urban composition with a high level of architectural and landscape values.
A real asset of this great construction was its creative enhancement with local artistic architectural achievements. Zamość is about 20 kilometres from the Roztocze National Park. Zamość was founded in 1580 by the Chancellor and Hetman, Jan Zamoyski, on the trade route linking western and northern Europe with the Black Sea. Modelled on Italian trading cities, built during the late-renaissance period by the Paduan architect Bernardo Morando, Zamość remains a perfect example of a Renaissance town of the late 16th century, it retains its original street layout, fortifications and a large number of original buildings blending Italian and central European architectural traditions. In the 17th century the city thrived during its fastest period of development, it attracted not only Poles but other nationalities. The city, faced numerous invasions, including a Cossack siege led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky, the leader of the uprising against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, another siege during the Swedish Deluge in 1656.
The Swedish army, like the Cossacks, failed to capture the city. Only during the Great Northern War was Zamość occupied, by Saxon troops. Between 1772 and 1809, the city was annexed into the Austrian Empire's Crown Province of Galicia. In 1809 the city was incorporated to the Napoleonic Duchy of Warsaw. After the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna in 1815, incorporated Zamość into the Kingdom of Poland called Congress Poland, controlled by the Russian Empire; the city played a big role during the November Uprising in 1830–1831 and surrendered as the last Polish resistance point. The fortress was demolished in 1866, allowing the rapid growth of the city, beyond its original limits; the city was overrun by the Germans during the invasion of Poland at the outbreak of World War II. On September 27, 1939 Nazi Germany signed a border treaty with the Soviet Union who had invaded Poland from the east, on September 28, 1939, Zamość was handed over to the Red Army – for about a week; the Soviets left town on October 5, 1939 along with some 5,000 Jews after another demarcation line adjustment.
The Germans returned to the city on October 8, 1939 and shortly afterwards, mass arrests of prominent citizens began. This was as part of the secret A-B Action, the deliberate extermination of the Polish intelligentsia; the Nazis created an execution site in the Zamość Rotunda. More than 8,000 people were massacred there, including displaced residents of the region and Soviet prisoners of war captured during Operation Barbarossa. In 1942, Zamość County, due to its fertile black soil, was chosen for further German colonization in the General Government as part of Generalplan Ost, with the new name of Himmlerstadt, after Heinrich Himmler; the name was changed to Pflugstadt, to symbolise the German "plow", to "plow the East". Both names weren't introduced. Local people resisted the German occupiers with great determination; the Nazis found it difficult to find many families suitable for settlement in the area, those who did settle fled in fear, because the former Polish residents would burn down houses or kill their inhabitants.
In 1942-1943, tens of thousands of inhabitants of the region were ethnically cleansed by the Nazi occupiers, to make space for German settlers in order to Germanize the area. Most of them were deported to forced labor camps in Germany, concentration or extermination camps such as Auschwitz, Majdanek and Bełżec. After World War II, Zamość started a period of development. In the 1970s and 1980s the population grew as the city started to gain significant profits from the old trade routes linking Germany with Ukraine and the ports on the Black Sea. During the years 1975–1998 Zamość was the capital of Zamość Voivodeship. Zamość was an important centre of Chasidic Judaism; the Qahal of Zamość was founded in 1588. The first Jewish settlers were Sephardi Jews coming from Italy, Spain and Turkey. In the 17th century, Ashkenazi Jews settled in the city and soon became the majority of the Jewish
An aircraft pilot or aviator is a person who controls the flight of an aircraft by operating its directional flight controls. Some other aircrew members, such as navigators or flight engineers, are considered aviators, because they are involved in operating the aircraft's navigation and engine systems. Other aircrew members, such as flight attendants and ground crew, are not classified as aviators. In recognition of the pilots' qualifications and responsibilities, most militaries and many airlines worldwide award aviator badges to their pilots; the first recorded use of the term aviator was in 1887, as a variation of "aviation", from the Latin avis, coined in 1863 by G. de la Landelle in Aviation Ou Navigation Aérienne. The term aviatrix, now archaic, was used for a female aviator; these terms were used more in the early days of aviation, when airplanes were rare, connoted bravery and adventure. For example, a 1905 reference work described the Wright brothers' first airplane: "The weight, including the body of the aviator, is a little more than 700 pounds".
To ensure the safety of people in the air and on the ground, early aviation soon required that aircraft be under the operational control of a properly trained, certified pilot at all times, responsible for the safe and legal completion of the flight. The Aéro-Club de France delivered the first certificate to Louis Blériot in 1908—followed by Glenn Curtiss, Léon Delagrange, Robert Esnault-Pelterie; the British Royal Aero Club followed in 1910 and the Aero Club of America in 1911. Civilian pilots fly aircraft of all types for pleasure, charity, or in pursuance of a business, or commercially for non-scheduled and scheduled passenger and cargo air carriers, corporate aviation, forest fire control, law enforcement, etc; when flying for an airline, pilots are referred to as airline pilots, with the pilot in command referred to as the captain. There are 290,000 airline pilots in the world in 2017 and aircraft simulator manufacturer CAE Inc. forecasts a need for 255,000 new ones for a population of 440,000 by 2027, 150,000 for growth and 105,000 to offset retirement and attrition: 90,000 in Asia-Pacific, 85,000 in Americas, 50,000 in Europe and 30,000 in Middle East & Africa.
Boeing expects 790,000 new pilots in 20 years from 2018, 635,000 for commercial aviation, 96,000 for business aviation and 59,000 for helicopters: 33% in Asia Pacific, 26% in North America, 18% in Europe, 8% in the Middle East, 7% in Latin America, 4% in Africa and 3% in Russia/ Central Asia. By November 2017, due a shortage of qualified pilots, some pilots are leaving corporate aviation to return to airlines. In one example a Global 6000 pilot, making $250,000 a year for 10 to 15 flight hours a month, returned to American Airlines with full seniority. A Gulfstream G650 or Global 6000 pilot might earn between $245,000 and $265,000, recruiting one may require up to $300,000. At the other end of the spectrum, constrained by the available pilots, some small carriers hire new pilots who need 300 hours to jump to airlines in a year, they may recruit non-career pilots who have other jobs or airline retirees who want to continue to fly. The number of airline pilots could decrease as automation replaces copilots and pilots as well.
In January 2017 Rhett Ross, CEO of Continental Motors said "my concern is that in the next two decades—if not sooner—automated and autonomous flight will have developed sufficiently to put downward pressure on both wages and the number and kind of flying jobs available. So if a kid asks the question now and he or she is 18, 20 years from now will be 2037 and our would-be careerist will be 38—not mid-career. Who among us thinks aviation and for-hire flying will look like it does now?" Christian Dries, owner of Diamond Aircraft Austria said "Behind the curtain, aircraft manufacturers are working on a single-pilot cockpit where the airplane can be controlled from the ground and only in case of malfunction does the pilot of the plane interfere. The flight will be autonomous and I expect this to happen in the next five to six years for freighters."In August 2017 financial company UBS predicted pilotless airliners are technically feasible and could appear around 2025, offering around $35bn of savings in pilot costs: $26bn for airlines, $3bn for business jets and $2.1bn for civil helicopters.
Regulations have to adapt with air cargo at the forefront, but pilotless flights could be limited by consumer behaviour: 54% of 8,000 people surveyed are defiant while 17% are supportive, with acceptation progressively forecast. AVweb reporter Geoff Rapoport stated, "pilotless aircraft are an appealing prospect for airlines bracing for the need to hire several hundred thousand new pilots in the next decade. Wages and training costs have been rising at regional U. S. airlines over the last several years as the major airlines have hired pilots from the regionals at unprecedented rates to cover increased air travel demand from economic expansion and a wave of retirements". Going to pilotless airliners could be done in one bold step or in gradual improvements like by reducing the cockpit crew for long haul missions or allowing single pilot cargo aircraft; the industry has not decided