SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ziggurat

A ziggurat is a type of massive structure built in ancient Mesopotamia and Iran. It has the form of a terraced compound of successively receding levels. Notable ziggurats include the Great Ziggurat of Ur near Nasiriyah, the Ziggurat of Aqar Quf near Baghdad, the now destroyed Etemenanki in Babylon, Chogha Zanbil in Khūzestān and Sialk. Ziggurats were built by ancient Sumerians, Elamites and Babylonians for local religions; each ziggurat was part of a temple complex. The precursors of the ziggurat were raised platforms that date from the Ubaid period during the sixth millennium; the ziggurats began as a platform, the ziggurat was a mastaba-like structure with a flat top. The sun-baked bricks made up the core of the ziggurat with facings of fired bricks on the outside; each step was smaller than the step below it. The facings were glazed in different colors and may have had astrological significance. Kings sometimes had their names engraved on these glazed bricks; the number of floors ranged from two to seven.

According to archaeologist Harriet Crawford, "It is assumed that the ziggurats supported a shrine, though the only evidence for this comes from Herodotus, physical evidence is nonexistent. It has been suggested by a number of scholars that this shrine was the scene of the sacred marriage, the central rite of the great new year festival. Herodotus describes the furnishing of the shrine on top of the ziggurat at Babylon and says it contained a great golden couch on which a woman spent the night alone; the god Marduk was said to come and sleep in his shrine. The likelihood of such a shrine being found is remote. Erosion has reduced the surviving ziggurats to a fraction of their original height, but textual evidence may yet provide more facts about the purpose of these shrines. In the present state of our knowledge it seems reasonable to adopt as a working hypothesis the suggestion that the ziggurats developed out of the earlier temples on platforms and that small shrines stood on the highest stages..."

Access to the shrine would have been by a series of ramps on one side of the ziggurat or by a spiral ramp from base to summit. The Mesopotamian ziggurats were not places for public worship or ceremonies, they were believed to be dwelling places for the gods and each city had its own patron god. Only priests were permitted on the ziggurat or in the rooms at its base, it was their responsibility to care for the gods and attend to their needs; the priests were powerful members of Sumerian and Assyro-Babylonian society. One of the best-preserved ziggurats is Chogha Zanbil in western Iran; the Sialk ziggurat, in Kashan, Iran, is the oldest known ziggurat, dating to the early 3rd millennium BCE. Ziggurat designs ranged from simple bases upon which a temple sat, to marvels of mathematics and construction which spanned several terraced stories and were topped with a temple. An example of a simple ziggurat is the White Temple of Uruk, in ancient Sumer; the ziggurat itself is the base. Its purpose is to get the temple closer to the heavens, provide access from the ground to it via steps.

The Mesopotamians believed that these pyramids temples connected earth. In fact, the ziggurat at Babylon was known as Etemenankia or "House of the Platform between Heaven and Earth". An example of an extensive and massive ziggurat is the Marduk ziggurat, of Etemenanki, of ancient Babylon. Not much of the base is left of this massive 91-meter tall structure, yet archeological findings and historical accounts put this tower at seven multicolored tiers, topped with a temple of exquisite proportions; the temple is thought to have been painted and maintained an indigo color, matching the tops of the tiers. It is known that there were three staircases leading to the temple, two of which were thought to have only ascended half the ziggurat's height. Etemenanki, the name for the structure, is Sumerian and means "temple of the foundation of heaven and earth"; the date of its original construction is unknown, with suggested dates ranging from the fourteenth to the ninth century BCE, with textual evidence suggesting it existed in the second millennium.

According to Herodotus, at the top of each ziggurat was a shrine, although none of these shrines has survived. One practical function of the ziggurats was a high place on which the priests could escape rising water that annually inundated lowlands and flooded for hundreds of kilometers, for example, the 1967 flood. Another practical function of the ziggurat was for security. Since the shrine was accessible only by way of three stairways, a small number of guards could prevent non-priests from spying on the rituals at the shrine on top of the ziggurat, such as initiation rituals like the Eleusinian mysteries, cooking of sacrificial food and burning of carcasses of sacrificial animals; each ziggurat was part of a temple complex that included a courtyard, storage rooms and living quarters, around which a city spread. The ziggurat of Aqar Quf the great ziggurat of Ur the ziggurat of Etemananki the ziggurat of Ur Mound Pyramid Stupa UNESCO Heritage site for Choqa Zanbil ziggurat, Iran. Article on the status of Sialk ziggurat, Iran

Flesh (comics)

Flesh is a recurring science fiction story in the British weekly anthology comic 2000 AD, created by writer Pat Mills. Flesh debuted in 2000 AD's first issue in 1977; the series was set in the age of dinosaurs who were farmed for their meat by cowboys from the future. The series was planned by Mills to be in Action, but after that title suffered censorship, Mills held the story back for his next project which became 2000 AD; the strip followed a similar path to Hook Jaw, one of the strips Mills had written in Action, in that it featured humans trying to dominate nature for their own purposes before falling prey to nature itself. Mills's original story's frontier setting setting was influenced by Westworld, including tourists treating the dinosaurs as entertainment. Flesh Book 1 ran for the first 19 issues of 2000 AD as well as the 1977 annual, ending its run that year. While Flesh was popular, the series was not mentioned again until 1978 when Satanus, Book 1's Tyrannosaurus antagonist, appeared in the Judge Dredd story The Cursed Earth.

The series was revived and returned with Flesh Book Two in issue 86, written by Kelvin Gosnell and drawn by Massimo Belardinelli. The series gained popularity and ran until issue 99. Further books followed in issues 800–808 and 817–825, written by Mills and Tony Skinner with art by Carl Critchlow, issues 973–979 written by Dan Abnett and Steve White with art by Gary Erskine and Simon Jacob. After a 10-year absence from 2000 AD, Flesh returned in 2007 with "Hand of Glory", a prequel to the events of Book 1. 4 years Book 1's sequel, "Texas", appeared 2000 AD. This arc remained unfinished and was followed by the sequel "Midnight Cowboys" in 2012. Flesh again returned in 2013 with "Badlanders" which featured the return of Book 1 characters set before the conclusion of Book 2. While Flesh Book 1 was published in black-and-white, Book 2 featured colour pages and dinosaurs covered in feathers—nearly 40 years before feathered dinosaurs became accepted; the dinosaurs have made a number of appearances over the years: Flesh: "Flesh, Book 1" "Carrion" "The Buffalo Hunt" "Flesh, Book 2" Judge Dredd: The Cursed Earth ABC Warriors: "Golgotha" Nemesis the Warlock: "Book V: The Vengeance of Thoth" Flesh: "Legend of Shamana, Book 1" "Legend of Shamana, Book 2" "Chronocide" "Flesh 3000AD" Satanus: "Unchained!"

Flesh: "Hand of Glory" "Texas" "Midnight Cowboys" "Badlanders" "Gorehead" Flesh: The Dino Files Earl Reagan – Veteran dinosaur hunter and the anti-hero of the series. "Claw" Carver – Reagan's greedy rival. His weapon is a dinosaur claw, taken from the Deinonychus that bit off his hand, he is last seen being attacked by Big Hungry. Vegas Carter – Daughter of Claw Carver and a prostitute; as an adult, she works as an executive for the corporation. Joe Brontowski – Cowboy from Reagan's team and the only one to survive Old One Eye's attack. Is killed by spiders in the meat processing plant. Doctor – A drunkard and gambler, the only physician in Carver's town. Most of his patients die on the operating table. Jane B Goode – Ex prostitute, Claw Carver's girlfriend and Vegas' mother. Boots McGurk – Vegas Carter's trail boss and an old friend of Reagan. Branded the Tyrannosaurus Gorehead with the number of the beast 666. Notch – A fat, bald dinosaur hunter with large muttonchop sideburns and a love of cigars.

He cuts a notch into his body. Remuda – A Mexican with a wide-brimmed sombrero hat, he is the first of McGurk's group to be killed. Stand Alone Shareen – Cowgirl from McGurk's team with a reputation for being a man hater. Nailbomb – Shareen's boyfriend, a punk covered in tattoos and extreme body piercings. Is eaten by a Quetzalcoatlus pterosaur. Old One Eye – 120-year-old matriarch of a pack of Tyrannosaurs, her eye was gouged out by Reagan. Big Hungry – Giant Nothosaurus seeking revenge on Carver for killing his babies. A malfunctioning time portal sends him into modern times. Gorehead – Tyrannosaur from Old One Eye's pack mutated by atom bomb. Satanus – Cloned son of Old One Eye, appears in Judge Dredd: The Cursed Earth. Golgotha – Son of Satanus and grandson of Old One Eye, appears in ABC Warriors: The Mek-nificent Seven. McZ – Detective and gunslinger resembling Buffalo Bill Cody who relentlessly pursues Carver for

Ranoidea wilcoxii

Ranoidea wilcoxii is a species of frog in the family Pelodryadidae. Known as the stony-creek frog, eastern stony creek frog and Wilcox's frog, it is endemic to Australia, being found on the eastern coast between Ingham, QLD, Sydney, NSW, as far west as Atherton, QLD, its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, intermittent rivers, pastureland. Ranoidea wilcoxii shows extreme sexual dimorphism, meaning the males and females have different appearances. Females can reach males 45 mm. Individuals are a smooth brown in colour with blotching in the groin. A thick black stripe extends from the nostril to the base of the forearm, encompassing the eye and tympanum The lower underside and groin can be from a light yellow to olive green, tending more towards a beige brown; the thighs will reflect this colouration. Females fit this description year round, but males turn a bright yellow to yellow-orange during mating season; as with most members of the genus Litoria, they have climbing discs on their toes.

The stony creek frog's snout is useful in the wild. It enables it to stay low under water; the snout acts as a ventilation system. When swimming underwater, the snout will stick above the water so it can breathe. Males call with a soft purring from debris such as rocks, vegetation or the ground next to the water body. Once the female has located the male, the pair will enter amplexus. Eggs will be laid in a single submerged cluster attached to a sediment, it is threatened by habitat loss, destruction of its native environment, in particular spawning locations, is leading to a decline in the number of this species. As with a great variety of Australian frog species, chytridiomycosis poses great threats to the future of this species, with some locales experiencing 28% infection rate; this species is identical physiologically to Lesueur's frog, is identical physiologically to R. jungguy. It can be distinguished from Lesueur's frog by the presence of blue spots on the thigh, which are missing in R. wilcoxii.

Geographical distribution and genetic testing are the only methods of differentiating R. wilcoxii from R. jungguy