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A zine is a small-circulation self-published work of original or appropriated texts and images reproduced via photocopier. Zines are the product of either a single person or of a small group, are popularly photocopied into physical prints for circulation. A fanzine is a non-professional and non-official publication produced by enthusiasts of a particular cultural phenomenon for the pleasure of others who share their interest; the term was coined in an October 1940 science fiction fanzine by Russ Chauvenet and popularized within science fiction fandom, entering the Oxford English Dictionary in 1949. Popularly defined within a circulation of 1,000 or fewer copies, in practice many zines are produced in editions of fewer than 100. Among the various intentions for creation and publication are developing one's identity, sharing a niche skill or art, or developing a story, as opposed to seeking profit. Zines have served as a significant medium of communication in various subcultures, draw inspiration from a "do-it-yourself" philosophy that disregards the traditional conventions of professional design and publishing houses, proposing an alternative and self-aware contribution.

Handwritten zines, or carbon zines, are individually made, emphasizing a personal connection between creator and reader, turning imagined communities into embodied ones. Written in a variety of formats from desktop-published text to comics and stories, zines cover broad topics including fanfiction, poetry, art & design, personal journals, social theory, intersectional feminism, single-topic obsession, or sexual content far outside the mainstream enough to be prohibitive of inclusion in more traditional media. Although there are a few eras associated with zine-making, this "wave" narrative proposes a limited view of the vast range of topics and environments zines occupied. Dissidents and members of marginalized groups have published their own opinions in leaflet and pamphlet form for as long as such technology has been available; the concept of zines had an ancestor in the amateur press movement of the late 19th and early 20th century, which would in its turn cross-pollinate with the subculture of science fiction fandom in the 1930s.

The popular graphic-style associated with zines is influenced artistically and politically by the subcultures of Dada, Fluxus and Situationism. Many trace zines' lineage from as far back as Thomas Paine's exceptionally popular 1775 pamphlet Common Sense, Benjamin Franklin's literary magazine for psychiatric patients at a Pennsylvania hospital and The Dial by Margaret Fuller and Ralph Waldo Emerson. During and after the Great Depression, editors of "pulp" science fiction magazines became frustrated with letters detailing the impossibilities of their science fiction stories. Over time they began to publish these overly-scrutinizing letters, complete with their return addresses. Hugo Gernsback published the first science fiction magazine, Amazing Stories in 1926, allowed for a large letter column which printed reader's addresses. By 1927 readers young adults, would write to each other, bypassing the magazine; this allowed these fans to begin writing to each other, now complete with a mailing list for their own science fiction fanzines that allowed them to write not only about science fiction but about fandom itself and, in self-proclaimed perzines, about themselves.

Science fiction fanzines vary in content, from short stories to convention reports to fanfiction were one of the earliest incarnations of the zine and influenced subsequent publications. "Zinesters" like Lisa Ben and Jim Kepner honed their talents in the science fiction fandom before tackling gay rights, creating zines such as "Vice Versa" and "ONE" that drew networking and distribution ideas from their SF roots. A number of leading science fiction and fantasy authors rose through the ranks of fandom, creating "pro-zines" such as Frederik Pohl and Isaac Asimov; the first science fiction fanzine, The Comet, was published in 1930 by the Science Correspondence Club in Chicago and edited by Raymond A. Palmer and Walter Dennis; the first version of Superman appeared in the third issue of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's 1933 fanzine Science Fiction. The first media fanzine was a Star Trek fan publication called Spockanalia, published in September 1967 by members of the Lunarians; some of the earliest examples of academic fandom were written on Star Trek zines K/S slash zines, which displayed a gay relationship between the two.

Author Joanna Russ wrote in her 1985 analysis of K/S zines that slash fandom at the time consisted of around 500 core fans and was 100% female. Russ observed that while SF fans looked down on Star Trek fans, Star Trek fans looked down on K/S writers. Kirk/Spock zines contained fanfiction and poetry created by fans. Zines were sent to fans on a mailing list or sold at conventions. Many had high production values and some were sold at convention auctions for hundreds of dollars."K/S not only speaks to my condition. It is written in Female. I don't mean that of course. What I mean is that I can read it without translating it from the consensual, public world, sexist, unconcerned with women per se, managing to make it make sense to me and my condition." Janus called Aurora, was a science fiction feminist zine created by Janice Bogstad and Jeanne Gomoll in 1975. It contained short stories and film reviews. Among its contributors were authors such as Octavia Butle

Denis Norden

Denis Mostyn Norden was an English comedy writer and television presenter. After an early career working in cinemas, he began scriptwriting during the Second World War. From 1948 to 1959, he co-wrote the successful BBC Radio comedy programme Take it from Here! with Frank Muir. Muir and Norden remained associated for more than 50 years, appearing together on the radio panel programmes My Word! and My Music! after they stopped collaborating on scripts. He wrote scripts for Hollywood films, he presented television programmes on ITV for many years, including the nostalgia quiz Looks Familiar and blooper shows It'll be Alright on the Night and Laughter File. Norden was born into a Jewish family in Mare Street, Hackney, in London's East End, was educated at Craven Park Elementary School and the City of London School where he was a contemporary of Kingsley Amis. Upon leaving school, he worked as a stagehand, moved into cinema management by the age of 17 and progressed to be the manager of a cinema in Watford.

He organised variety shows. He joined the Royal Air Force during the Second World War and was a wireless operator with a signals unit, his writing career began in the Royal Air Force. Whilst preparing for one of these shows in 1945, accompanied by fellow performers Eric Sykes and Ron Rich, went to a nearby prison camp in search of stage lighting. Norden and Rich organised a food collection amongst their comrades to feed the starving camp inmates. After the war, Norden wrote material for comedian Dick Bentley, before meeting Frank Muir in 1947. Muir and Norden's first joint venture was a radio show for both performers, Take it from Here!, which they scripted from 1948 to 1959. They went on to write many successful radio and television scripts, including Whack-O! and three series of Faces of Jim which were vehicles for Jimmy Edwards. They wrote the satirical sketch Balham, Gateway to the South for the BBC Third Programme; the sketch, broadcast in 1948 as part of a comedy series called The Third Division and which featured actor Robert Beatty, was performed by Peter Sellers for his LP, The Best of Sellers.

In the early 1960s, Muir and Norden wrote the sitcom Brothers in Law, an early series featuring Richard Briers, its spin-off Mr Justice Duncannon. In 1964, their writing partnership ended, as Muir moved into management with the BBC. Over the next several years, who had long had a fascination with Hollywood, wrote the scripts for several films, including Buona Sera, Mrs. Campbell! and The Bliss of Mrs. Blossom. Although he was no longer writing with Muir, the two appeared together on panel shows My Word! and My Music!, first on radio television. In 1965, he wrote and starred in a featurette jointly made by the James Bond producers and the Ford Motor Company; the colour short, entitled A Child's Guide to Blowing up a Motor Car, went behind the scenes of an exploding car stunt being filmed for Thunderball. Norden takes a young relative on a day out to a film set, where they meet several stars and production team members, but not Sean Connery. Lost for many years, it is now available on the'Ultimate Edition' DVD of Thunderball, as released in late 2006.

Norden was later well-known to television audiences for his ITV shows: Looks Familiar, It'll be Alright on the Night and Laughter File. It'll be Alright on the Night, which he hosted from 1977 until 2006, consisted of out-takes from film and television linked by witty comments. Much of the material from the early episodes was used on Dick Clark's "Bloopers" specials which aired on NBC a few years later. A couple of mid-1980s editions featured several home video clips: with the increasing private ownership of domestic camcorders, clips were spun off into the long-running You've Been Framed!. Laughter File, first broadcast in 1991, showed spoof adverts, real foreign adverts, practical jokes, live television mistakes and other various "oddities", which Norden said, "tickled our fancies, just when they needed tickling"; these items included everything discovered during research for material suitable for It'll be Alright on the Night, not eligible for that show. Norden announced his retirement from his two long-running ITV shows It'll be Alright on the Night and Laughter File on 21 April 2006 because of his age and because he was by suffering from macular degeneration, which made it difficult for him to read an autocue.

A special show was recorded on 14 May 2006 as a'farewell tour' to all his shows over the years, called All the Best from Denis Norden, shown on 2 January 2007. As the show's closing credits were shown, the studio audience gave Norden a standing ovation, followed by Norden placing his trademark clipboard on his desk, which the camera zoomed in on to as the credits ended, he has since been succeeded on It'll be Alright on the Night by Griff Rhys Jones and by David Walliams. For years, he was resistant to producing an autobiography, saying that much of his life and career had been well covered by Frank Muir's A Kentish Lad and that a book called The Bits Frank Left Out would be too brief. In October 2008, a book containing a sequence of autobiographical sketches was published entitled Clips from a Life, he continued to make occasional radio appearances. He contributed to a BBC Four season about the history of satire, he appeared as a guest on The One Show on 2

Ellen White (Snuneymuxw First Nation)

Ellen R. White of the Snuneymuxw First Nation is a Canadian aboriginal elder and academic, recognized with a national Order of Canada and provincial Order of British Columbia; as a young girl, Ellen trained as a midwife, assisting at births when she was just 9 years old, delivering children by age 16. After growing up on Vancouver Island, she moved to Nanaimo, British Columbia after marrying Doug White, she raised her children in the Nanaimo First Nation. After 30 years as a lecturer and storyteller at University of British Columbia, White was instrumental in establishing the First Nations Studies program at Vancouver Island University in 1994, spent 13 years there as an Elder-in-Residence. Known as "Auntie Ellen" to students and faculty, White received an Honorary Doctorate from VIU in 2006 for her years of dedication to education and community service; the Kwulasulwut Garden located at VIU's Nanaimo campus is dedicated to Dr. Ellen White using her Coast Salish name Kwulasulwut, meaning "many stars".

The garden includes a totem pole by Coast Salish artist Jane Marston. Ellen White is the grandmother of Snuneymuxw Chief Douglas White III. 2006 - Honorary Doctorate, Vancouver Island University 2007 - B. C. Community Achievement Award 2011 - Order of British Columbia 2016 - Order of Canada Kwulasulwut: Stories From the Coast Salish. Illustrated by David Neel. Kwulasulwut II. Illustrated by Bill Cohen. Dr. Ellen White "A Story of Water"

The Lucky Lady

The Lucky Lady is a silent film romance produced by Famous Players-Lasky, distributed by Paramount Pictures, directed by Raoul Walsh, starring Greta Nissen, Lionel Barrymore, William Collier, Jr. and Marc McDermott. Walsh and Barrymore and their families knew each other going back to their adolescence in the Victorian era of the 1880s and 1890s Contrary to some sources, this film is not a lost film. A print survives in the Library of Congress. Greta Nissen - Antoinette Lionel Barrymore - Count Ferranzo William Collier, Jr. - Clarke Marc McDermott - Franz Garletz Carrie Daumery - Duchess Lionel Barrymore filmography The Lucky Lady at The Lucky Lady lantern slide coming attractions advertisement

Hapton railway station

Hapton railway station serves the English village of Hapton 3 miles west of Burnley Central railway station on the East Lancashire Line operated by Northern. It is unmanned. Between 2004–5 and 2005–6, passenger usage fell by 21%, but in the years since, it has risen again by more than 60%; the station has only basic facilities available, the standard plexiglass shelters, passenger information screens and PA system, with no permanent buildings. It is accessible for disabled travellers, via ramps from the nearby main road to each platform. Monday to Saturday, there is an hourly service from Huncoat to Burnley and Colne and Preston via Accrington and Blackburn. On Sundays, there is an hourly service in each direction, with through running to and from Blackpool South. On 14 May 2012, Hapton became a request only stop, along with Huncoat, Burnley Barracks and Pleasington. Train times and station information for Hapton railway station from National Rail

R v Hibbert

R v Hibbert, 2 SCR 973, is a Supreme Court of Canada decision on aiding and abetting and the defence of duress in criminal law. The court held that duress is capable of negating the mens rea for some offences, but not for aiding the commission of an offence under s. 21 of the Criminal Code. Nonetheless, duress can still function as an excuse-based defence. On November 25, 1991, Fitzroy Cohen was shot four times with a semi-automatic handgun in the lobby of the apartment building he lived in; the shots were fired by an acquaintance of Cohen's. Cohen had been aware that Bailey was seeking revenge for an incident in the previous year in which Bailey had been robbed by a rival drug dealer while Cohen and others stood by watching and laughing. Bailey was led to Cohen's apartment by the accused, Lawrence Hibbert, a close friend of Cohen. On the night of the shooting, Hibbert accidentally ran into Bailey, was threatened with a handgun to bring Bailey to Cohen's apartment. Hibbert was ordered to call Cohen to meet him in the lobby of the apartment.

Hibbert made no effort to intervene, claimed that he had no opportunity to run away or warn Cohen. He was driven from the scene by Bailey. Cohen survived the shooting. Hibbert turned himself in the next day and was charged with attempted murder as party to the offence. At trial, Hibbert was convicted of aggravated assault; the Court of Appeal upheld the conviction. The Supreme Court of Canada was asked to decide the applicability of the defence of duress in the context of aiding and abetting the commission of an offence under s. 21 of the Criminal Code. Chief Justice Lamer, writing for the unanimous court, held that the trial judge's instructions to the jury were incorrect and ordered a new trial. In particular, the trial judge was incorrect in referring to the mental state as being a "common intention" to carry out an unlawful purpose. Second, the instruction that the mens rea for party liability under s. 21 could be negated by duress was incorrect. The trial judge failed to instruct the jurors that the common law defence of duress could excuse the accused if the Crown proved the elements of the offence.

In arriving at the decision, the court considered the relationship between duress and the mens rea for party liability under ss. 21 and 21 of the Code. The court interpreted the word "purpose" in s. 21 as meaning "intent" and rejected the arguments that the accused must "desire" the outcome in order to be guilty of aiding and abetting the commission of a crime. The court noted that using the concept of "desire" would lead to absurd results and would not accord with Parliamentary intention. Under s. 21, the words "intention in common" was interpreted to mean that the party and the principal offender must have the same unlawful purpose in mind, but does not mean that they must have the same motives and desires. The court found that a person acting under threats of death or bodily harm can in some cases negate the mens rea component of an offence. Whether or not it does; the relevant question in each case will be whether the definition of the offence as written by Parliament is capable of supporting the inference that the presence of coercion can have a bearing on the existence of mens rea.

In any case, the defence of duress will be available as an excuse. This acts to the defence of necessity. However, an accused cannot rely on the common law defence of duress if he or she had an opportunity to escape from the circumstances causing duress. Full text of Supreme Court of Canada decision at LexUM and CanLII