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A zipper, fly, dingy, or zip fastener known as a clasp locker, is a used device for binding the edges of an opening of fabric or other flexible material, such as on a garment or a bag. It is used in clothing and other bags, sporting goods, camping gear, other items. Zippers come in all different sizes and colors. Whitcomb L. Judson, an American inventor from Chicago, is sometimes given credit as the inventor of the zipper, but he never made a practical device; the method, still in use today, is based on interlocking teeth. It was titled the "hookless fastener" and was redesigned to become more reliable; the bulk of a zipper consists of two rows of protruding teeth, which may be made to interdigitate, linking the rows, carrying from tens to hundreds of specially shaped metal or plastic teeth. These teeth can be either individual or shaped from a continuous coil, are referred to as elements; the slider, operated by hand, moves along the rows of teeth. Inside the slider is a Y-shaped channel that meshes together or separates the opposing rows of teeth, depending on the direction of the slider's movement.

The word zipper is onomatopoetic, because it was named for the sound the device makes when used, a high-pitched zip. In many jackets and similar garments, the opening is closed when the slider is at the top end; some jackets have double-separating zippers with two sliders on the tape. When the sliders are on opposite ends of the tape, the jacket is closed. If the lower slider is raised the bottom part of the jacket may be opened to allow more comfortable sitting or bicycling; when both sliders are lowered the zipper may be separated. Bags and other pieces of luggage often feature two sliders on the tape: the part of the zipper between them is unfastened; when the two sliders are located next to each other, which can be at any point along the tape, the zipper is closed. Zippers may: increase or decrease the size of an opening to allow or restrict the passage of objects, as in the fly of trousers or in a pocket. One example of this is military rucksacks which have smaller pouches or bags attached on the sides using one or two zippers.

These variations are achieved by sewing one end of the zipper together, sewing both ends together, or allowing both ends of the zipper to fall apart. A zipper costs little, but if it fails, the garment may be unusable until the zipper is repaired or replaced—which can be quite difficult and expensive. Problems lie with the zipper slider. With separating zippers, the insertion pin may tear loose from the tape. If a zipper fails, it can either jam or break off. In 1851, Elias Howe received a patent for an "Automatic, Continuous Clothing Closure", he did not try to market it, missing recognition he might otherwise have received. Howe's device was more like an elaborate drawstring than a true slide fastener. Forty-two years in 1891, Whitcomb Judson, who invented a pneumatic street railway, marketed a "Clasp Locker"; the device served as a hook-and-eye shoe fastener. With the support of businessman Colonel Lewis Walker, Judson launched the Universal Fastener Company to manufacture the new device; the clasp locker had its public debut at the 1893 Chicago World's Fair and met with little commercial success.

Judson is sometimes given credit as the inventor of the zipper, but he never made a practical device. The Universal Fastener Company moved to Hoboken, New Jersey, in 1901, reorganized as the Fastener Manufacturing and Machine Company. Gideon Sundback, a Swedish-American electrical engineer, was hired to work for the company in 1906. Good technical skills and a marriage to the plant-manager's daughter Elvira Aronson led Sundback to the position of head designer; the company moved to Meadville, where it operated for most of the 20th century under the name Talon, Inc. Sundback worked on improving the fastener and in 1909 he registered a patent in Germany; the US-rights to this invention were on the name of the Meadville company, but Sundback retained non-U. S. Rights and used these to set up in subsequent years Lightning Fastner Co. in St. Catharines, Ontario. Sundback's work with this firm has led to the common misperception that he was Canadian and that the zipper originated in that country. Gideon Sundback increased the number of fastening elements from four per inch to ten or eleven, introduced two facing rows of teeth that pulled into a single piece by the slider, increased the opening for the teeth guided by the slider.

The patent for the "Separable Fastener" was issued in 1917. Gideon Sundback created the manufacturing machine for the new device; the "S-L" or "scrapless" machine took a special Y-shaped wire and cut scoops from it punched the scoop dimple and nib, clamped each scoop on a cloth tape to produce a continuous zipper chain. Within the first year of operation, Sundback's machinery was producing a few hundred feet of fastener per day. In March of the same year, Mathieu Burri, a Swiss inventor, improv

Caribou, Colorado

Caribou is a former silver-mining town, now a ghost town near Nederland in Boulder County, United States. It was named after the Caribou silver mine nearby; the Caribou Ranch recording studio is several miles away, on the road from Nederland up to Caribou. A prospector named Conger discovered placer gold downstream from Caribou in 1861, he followed the gold up Coon Trail Creek, discovered the first silver vein in what became the Caribou district. Caribou was established about 1870 to house miners from the Caribou silver mine; the town had one church, three saloons, a brewery, its own newspaper, the Caribou Post. The Caribou mine was sold for $3 million in 1871 to Dutch investors, but the new owners found that the best ore had been removed; the mine struggled until 1876, when controversial Colorado entrepreneurs Jerome B. Chaffee and David Moffat bought the mine, incorporated it, sold shares in New York. A fire burned down the town in 1879. By the 1920s, Caribou was home to fewer than 50 people. At its peak in 1875, Caribou's population was estimated to be about 3,000 people.

Caribou and its silver mines were deserted by the time 19-year-old geology student Tom Hendricks saw it in 1970, but Hendricks became convinced that the silver mines at Caribou could make a profit, has made the mines his life work. After he got his geology degree, he acquired the old Cross mine in 1973, began shipping silver concentrate in 1977, he acquired the famous Caribou mine in 1980. He has struggled to keep the Caribou mines operating through low silver prices. Hendricks, through Calais Resources, started exploring for gold instead of silver, but business conflicts resulting in lawsuits with former Colorado senator Tom Wiens have delayed attempts at gold mining; the old townsite is at 39°58′50″N 105°34′40″W, at an elevation of 10,000 feet above sea level. William Henry Jackson took a picture of the town in 1877, well-known Colorado photographer John Fielder took another photograph of the same view in 1998. Only two stone ruins, one collapsed wooden cabin remain of the town. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: historical Caribou Caribou

Jan Manual

Janhilly Manual known as Jan Manual is a Filipino actor and comedian. He made his first showbiz appearance on the fourth season of the Philippine reality show StarStruck where he finished as an avenger, he is a contract artist of GMA Artist Center. He is the nephew of Survivor Philippines Season 1 Castaway Rob Sy. On September 3, 2006, GMA Network formally announced the return of their reality-based talent show now titled StarStruck: The Next Level, a new and improved edition of the popular show. Hosted by the same hosts and headed by The Council members' Lorna Tolentino, Louie Ignacio and Douglas Quijano, the show had its pilot episode on December 4, 2006. In the 4th year of the reality-talent search, the age bracket for star wannabes was adjusted from 15-18 in previous batches to 16-21, a milestone in StarStruck History. Unlike the previous batches which launched 14, this batch were trimmed down to twenty, dubbed as the "Top 20". Four winners were picked in this season — Ultimate Sweetheart, Ultimate Hunk, Ultimate Loveteam.

Just like in previous seasons, voting is via the internet and mobile phones and this constitutes 50% of the total scores of the survivors. Jan was eliminated. At the Final Judgment, he received an award for Dats Entertaining Award along with Dex Quindoza for Male with the Most Dramatic Exit, Stef Prescott for Female With the Most Dramatic Exit, Jesi Corcuera for the Best Taktak Award, he is presently making his own mark and signature in the Philippine show business through his role as Pacboy, the comic imitation of Manny Pacquiao in his segment in Startalk. He is joined with his fellow StarStruck alumni Chariz Solomon with StarStruck V's graduates Nina Kodaka and Princess Snell. Jan voiced the character Chad from Bleach anime. Jan had some offerings which were sexy roles but he refused because he thought that he was too sexy to be in it, "sexy of fats". While celebrating the KapusOlympics Watermania 2008 in Golden Sunset Resort, the torch accidentally fell onto Jan's face and to some part of his body.

He stayed in hospital for three weeks and couldn't do anything but to rest while fighting for his life thinking that it was his end. After three weeks of medication, Jan back to work and there were no marks that made by the accident; that experience. Jan was included in I Laugh Sabado. that served as his biggest break as he was one of the main hosts. According to him in an interview, he said he could be free from the shadows of his character in Startalk, "Pacboy", he joined the casts of Wally Bayola, Paolo Paraiso, Janna Dominguez, Gee Canlas, Alfred Marquez and Archie Alemania. I Laugh Sabado was directed by Bibeth Orteza. In the said show, he said that he was able to show his other abilities as a comedian. Aside from his stint in I Laugh Sabado, he was seen more in some shows of GMA as an extended cast such as The Last Prince and in Panday Kids. Jan appeared in Take Me Out, a TV dating game show hosted by Jay-R. Being a comedian, Jan served as guest in Bubble Gang where he admitted he wanted to be part of the country's best gag show.

In 2011, Jan was cast in the country's first epic-serye and the most expensive project GMA has done yet before Indio — Amaya starred by Marian Rivera and Sid Lucero. In 2012, Jan was part of My Daddy Dearest as Jing. In 2013, Jan was expected to be part of a new series to be led by his StarStruck batch-mates, Aljur Abrenica and Kris Bernal; the title of the series was Prinsesa ng Buhay Ko. Aside from his upcoming prime time series, on July 2013, Bubble Gang revealed that Manual is part of the show's search for a new batch of comedians, their search is called "Bagong Gang The Search for New Recruits". However, Manual shared that he might eliminate himself in Bubble Gang because of the possible schedule conflict with his Prinsesa ng Buhay Ko role, although he said that nothing was definite yet as of that moment. In the end, Jan was able to finish his soap and at the same time, winning the competition in the gag show. In mid-2013, Jan appeared in Wagas, a romance drama anthology aired in GMA News TV with Frank Magalona and Kylie Padilla, in Pepito Manaloto as Lawrence.

Jan portrayed the role of Charice Pempengco's manager in Charice's life story in Magpakailanman. In early 2014, Jan had his first movie project via Basement, he portrayed the character of the nurse of Pilita Corrales' character. The said film was released on February 12, 2013 making it as the Valentine movie offering of GMA Films. By the end the first quarter of 2014, Jan had his first starring role via the Lenten season offering of The 700 Club Asia's Tanikala, My Sister, My Lover, he starred opposite another StarStruck alumna. Jan played the character of Art Duyan, a gay before who got married and getting a family. Art is now a pastor. Jan is a no stranger to gay roles. According to him, his role in My Sister, My Lover is special to him because the show has a different purpose, not just to entertain, he said that he accepted the role because he knows that that show would do something good and there would be a lot of viewers who would be able to relate to the story. According to CBN Asia's website, Tanikala is their annual TV drama special that airs nationwide in the Philippines every Holy Week.

It "features true-to-life stories of Filipinos who fought their way out of the darkness of their lives, found the light of the truth in Jesus". After months of not having an acting project aside from his Bubble Gang stint, Jan becomes part of the weekly drama anthology, Seasons of Love, where he is in the second installment entitled "I Do, I Don't" which starred by Louise delo

Sabina Spielrein

Sabina Nikolayevna Spielrein was a Russian physician and one of the first female psychoanalysts. She was in succession the patient student colleague of Carl Gustav Jung, with whom she had an intimate relationship during 1908–1910, as is documented in their correspondence from the time and her diaries, she met and had a collegial relationship with Sigmund Freud. One of her more famous analysands was Jean Piaget, she worked as a psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and paediatrician in Switzerland and Russia. In a thirty-year professional career, she published over 35 papers in three languages, covering psychoanalysis, developmental psychology, psycholinguistics and educational psychology, her best known and most influential published work in the field of psychoanalysis is the essay titled "Destruction as the Cause of Coming Into Being", written in German in 1912. Sabina was known as the pioneer of psychoanalysis and one of the first people to introduce the death instinct, she was one of the first people to conduct a case study on schizophrenia and have a dissertation appear in psychoanalytic journal.

Although Spielrein has been remembered on account of her relationship with Jung, has sometimes been the subject of lurid speculation, she is now recognized as an important and innovative thinker, marginalized in history because of her unusual eclecticism, refusal to join factions, feminist approach to psychology, her death in the Holocaust. She was born in 1885 into a wealthy Jewish family in Rostov-on-Don, Russian Empire, her mother Eva Lublinskaya was the granddaughter of rabbis from Yekaterinoslav. Eva trained as a dentist, but did not practise. Sabina's father Nikolai Spielrein was an agronomist. After moving from Warsaw to Rostov, he became a successful merchant. On her birth certificate, Sabina appeared as Sheyve Naftulovna, but throughout her life and on official documents she used the name Sabina Nikolayevna, she was the eldest of five children. All three of her brothers became eminent scientists. One of them, Isaac Spielrein, was a pioneer of work psychology. From her early childhood, Sabina was imaginative and believed that she had a'higher calling' to achieve greatness, she communicated about this with a'guardian spirit'.

However, her parents' marriage was turbulent and she experienced physical violence from both of them. She obsessions; some commentators believe. She attended a Froebel school followed by the Yekaterinskaya Gymnasium in Rostov, where she excelled in science and languages, she learned to speak three languages fluently. During her teens, she continued to be troubled and became infatuated first with her history teacher with a paternal uncle. While at school, she resolved to go abroad to train as a doctor, with the approval of her rabbinic grandfather. At the end of her schooling she was awarded a gold medal. Following the sudden death of her only sister Emilia from typhoid, Spielrein's mental health started to deteriorate, at the age of 18 she suffered a breakdown with severe hysteria including tics and uncontrollable laughing and crying. After an unsuccessful stay in a Swiss sanatorium, where she developed another infatuation with one of the doctors, she was admitted to the Burghölzli mental hospital near Zurich in August 1904.

Its director was Eugen Bleuler, who ran it as a therapeutic community with social activities for the patients including gardening and scientific lectures. One of Bleuler's assistants was Carl Jung, afterwards appointed as deputy director. In the days following her admission, Spielrein disclosed to Jung that her father had beaten her, that she was troubled by masochistic fantasies of being beaten. Bleuler ensured that she was separated from her family requiring her father and brothers to have no contact with her, she made a rapid recovery, by October was able to apply for medical school and to start assisting Jung with word association tests in his laboratory. Between October and January, Jung carried out word association tests on her, used some rudimentary psychoanalytic techniques, he referred to her twice in letters to Freud as his first analytic case, although in his publications he referred to two patients in these terms. During her admission, Spielrein fell in love with Jung. By her own choice, she continued as a resident in the hospital from January to June 1905, although she was no longer receiving treatment.

She worked as an intern alongside other Russian students there including Max Eitingon, as well as expatriate psychiatrists who were studying with Bleuler, including Karl Abraham. She attended medical school at the University of Zurich from June 1905 to January 1911, excelling there academically, her diaries show a broad range of interests and reading including philosophy, Russian literature and evolutionary biology. She lived in a number of different apartments, mixing in a social circle that included fellow Russian Jewish women medical students. Many of these, together with Spielrein, became fascinated with the emerging movement of psychoanalysis in western Europe, studied with Bleuler and Jung. Spielrein's main focus while in medical school was on psychiatry. A number of them, like Spielrein, subsequently became psychiatrists, spent time with Freud in Vienna, published in psychoanalytic journals; these included Esther Aptekman, Fanya Chalevsky, Sheina Grebelska

Otto Bahr Halvorsen

Otto Bahr Halvorsen was a Norwegian lawyer and politician from the Conservative Party. He again in 1923 when he died in office. Halvorsen was born in Kristiania to Karine Christine Christiansen, he attended Kristiania Cathedral School. He studied law at the University of Kristiania where he completed his examen artium in 1890; as a licensed attorney, in 1904 he opened a law firm in Kristiania. In 1912 Halvorsen was first elected to the Storting from the neighborhood of Gamle Aker in the district of St. Hanshaugen in Kristiania. Halvorsen served Kristiania in the Parliament from the Conservative Party from 1913 to 1923, he became Prime Minister during 1920 while serving as Minister of Justice. He again became Prime Minister in May 1923 while serving as Minister of Justice. Between these terms, Halvorsen was leader of the Conservative Party in Parliament and President of the Storting. In 1899, he was married to Kathrine Hofgaard, daughter of Simon Wright Hofgaard and Ida Mathilde Aars. Otto B. Halvorsen's First Government Otto B.

Halvorsen's Second Government

Adam Richetti

Adam "Eddie" Richetti was an American criminal and Depression-era bank robber. He was associated with Aussie Elliott and Pretty Boy Floyd in the early-1930s, both he and Floyd being implicated in the Kansas City Massacre in 1933. Adam Richetti was born in Strawn, Texas on August 5, 1909, moved with his family to Lehigh, Oklahoma three years later, he had a younger sister Eva. Richetti, although he began drinking at 14, was uninvolved in criminal activity until his arrest for robbery in Crown Point, Indiana on August 7, 1928, two days after his 19th birthday, he was convicted and sentenced to serve 1 to 10 years at the Pendleton state reformatory, remaining there for two years, paroled on October 2, 1930. He participated in his first bank robbery two years when he joined Fred Hamner and brothers L. L. and W. A. Smalley in raiding a bank in Mill Creek, Oklahoma. During the getaway, Hamner was killed and the Smalley brothers were wounded and captured at the scene. Richetti wounded, was able to escape with $800.

He managed to make it to Oklahoma before being arrested, only two hours after the robbery. On April 5, he was sent to McAlester state prison, he spent four months in prison before being granted release under a $15,000 bond pending appeal of his conviction. Richetti skipped bail and disappeared for several months, he reappeared on January 12, 1933, to rob a bank in Ash Grove, Missouri of $3,000. His partners in the heist were Edgar Dunbar and Aussie Elliott with whom he hid at his brother's home in Bolivar, Missouri. Sometime prior to this, Richetti met Pretty Boy Floyd who became one of his closest confidants; the two became partners and, despite Richetti's worsening alcoholism, accompanied Floyd on a crime spree during the summer of 1933. They stole a car in Castle, Oklahoma on June 8 and together stole $1,638 from a bank in Mexico, Missouri six days later; that same afternoon, two police officers were killed near Columbia for which Richetti and Floyd were wrongly accused. Three days on June 16, the two men kidnapped Polk County Sheriff William Killingsworth from Bolivar, driving east in his brother's car until reaching Clinton, where they commandeered another car and took its driver Walter Griffith hostage as well.

Both Killingsworth and Griffith were released that night at Lee's Summit near Kansas City. Unknown to either Richetti or Floyd, while they were driving across Missouri, bank robber Frank Nash was being transported by train from Arkansas to Kansas City where his partners attempted to free him from custody. A shootout resulted, referred to as the Kansas City Massacre, which left Nash and four of his guards dead. Eyewitness accounts were inconsistent and various men were identified in the aftermath including Harvey Bailey and Wilbur Underhill. Vernon Miller, a former sheriff turned outlaw, was identified as the ringleader but his accomplices remained unknown. Meanwhile and Floyd struck again holding up a Galena bank for $3,000 on August 29. A month they rented an apartment in Buffalo, New York and moved in with their gun molls, sisters Rose Ash and Beulah Bird, on September 21. Despite the fact that there was nothing to link Richetti and Floyd to the shooting, the FBI identified them along with Miller as the triggermen on October 10, 1934.

At the time of the announcement, the two were still living in Buffalo with their girlfriends. Floyd, by this time, had been elevated to "public enemy #1" for his alleged role in the Kansas City Massacre; the basis for Floyd's involvement was circumstantial. A.45-caliber cartridge shell found at the scene was traced to one of Floyd's guns months after the shooting and questionable testimony from one of Miller's female associates, held incommunicado by the FBI and without legal representation, was enough to convict Floyd. As a well-known associate, it was assumed that Richetti had taken part in the rescue attempt. Richetti is believed by most modern crime historians to have had no active role in the Kansas City Massacre, the most popular story being sleeping off an all-night drinking binge at the time the shooting began. After hearing the news and Floyd fled Buffalo with their girlfriends on October 20. Heading for Oklahoma, their car broke down near Ohio after two days on the road, they sent the girls into town to get a tow hid in the woods until their return.

Their presence attracted the attention of local residents who called the police and arrested Richetti. Floyd managed to escape but was cornered by federal agents under Melvin Purvis near East Liverpool and gunned down two days later. Richetti was indicted for obstruction of justice on November 6, 1934, however that charge was held in abeyance when he was charged with murder by Missouri state officials for his alleged role in the Kansas City Massacre. During this time, Richetti was represented by Attorney Hugo Chestosky who fought against Richetti's extradition to Missouri. Chestosky doubted Richetti's role in the Kansas City Massacre based on his belief that the suspect had no involvement in the death of the officers, his trial began on June 13, 1935, during which time a number of eyewitnesses identified him and Floyd despite these witnesses having identified other suspects or had been unable to identify anyone at the time of the shooting two years earlier. Three days Richetti was found guilty of the murder of police officer Frank Hermanson and sentenced to death.

His legal team appealed the court's decision but failed to get a new trial. Richetti was to be sent to the gallows but was instead executed in Missouri's newly constructed gas chamber on October