An oxide /ˈɒksaɪd/ is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula. Oxide itself is the dianion of oxygen, an O2– atom, Metal oxides thus typically contain an anion of oxygen in the oxidation state of −2. Most of the Earths crust consists of oxides, the result of elements being oxidized by the oxygen in air or in water. Hydrocarbon combustion affords the two principal carbon oxides, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, even materials considered pure elements often develop an oxide coating. For example, aluminium foil develops a skin of Al2O3 that protects the foil from further corrosion. Individual elements can form multiple oxides, each containing different amounts of the element. Certain elements can form many different oxides, such those of nitrogen, due to its electronegativity, oxygen forms stable chemical bonds with almost all elements to give the corresponding oxides. Noble metals are prized because they resist direct chemical combination with oxygen, two independent pathways for corrosion of elements are hydrolysis and oxidation by oxygen.
The combination of water and oxygen is even more corrosive, virtually all elements burn in an atmosphere of oxygen, or an oxygen rich environment. In the presence of water and oxygen, some elements— sodium—react rapidly, even dangerously, in part for this reason and alkaline earth metals are not found in nature in their metallic, i. e. native, form. Caesium is so reactive with oxygen that it is used as a getter in vacuum tubes, the surface of most metals consists of oxides and hydroxides in the presence of air. A well-known example is aluminium foil, which is coated with a film of aluminium oxide that passivates the metal. The aluminium oxide layer can be built to greater thickness by the process of electrolytic anodising, though solid magnesium and aluminium react slowly with oxygen at STP—they, like most metals, burn in air, generating very high temperatures. Finely grained powders of most metals can be explosive in air. Consequently, they are used in Solid-fuel rockets. In dry oxygen, iron forms iron oxide, but the formation of the hydrated ferric oxides, Fe2O3−x2x.
Free oxygen production by photosynthetic bacteria some 3.5 billion years ago precipitated iron out of solution in the oceans as Fe2O3 in the important iron ore hematite. Oxides have a range of different structures, from molecules to polymeric
European Chemicals Agency
ECHA is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EUs chemicals legislation. ECHA helps companies to comply with the legislation, advances the safe use of chemicals, provides information on chemicals and it is located in Helsinki, Finland. The Agency, headed by Executive Director Geert Dancet, started working on 1 June 2007, the REACH Regulation requires companies to provide information on the hazards and safe use of chemical substances that they manufacture or import. Companies register this information with ECHA and it is freely available on their website. So far, thousands of the most hazardous and the most commonly used substances have been registered, the information is technical but gives detail on the impact of each chemical on people and the environment. This gives European consumers the right to ask whether the goods they buy contain dangerous substances. The Classification and Packaging Regulation introduces a globally harmonised system for classifying and labelling chemicals into the EU.
This worldwide system makes it easier for workers and consumers to know the effects of chemicals, companies need to notify ECHA of the classification and labelling of their chemicals. So far, ECHA has received over 5 million notifications for more than 100000 substances, the information is freely available on their website. Consumers can check chemicals in the products they use, Biocidal products include, for example, insect repellents and disinfectants used in hospitals. The Biocidal Products Regulation ensures that there is information about these products so that consumers can use them safely. ECHA is responsible for implementing the regulation, the law on Prior Informed Consent sets guidelines for the export and import of hazardous chemicals. Through this mechanism, countries due to hazardous chemicals are informed in advance and have the possibility of rejecting their import. Substances that may have effects on human health and the environment are identified as Substances of Very High Concern 1.
These are mainly substances which cause cancer, mutation or are toxic to reproduction as well as substances which persist in the body or the environment, other substances considered as SVHCs include, for example, endocrine disrupting chemicals. Companies manufacturing or importing articles containing these substances in a concentration above 0 and they are required to inform users about the presence of the substance and therefore how to use it safely. Consumers have the right to ask the retailer whether these substances are present in the products they buy, once a substance has been officially identified in the EU as being of very high concern, it will be added to a list. This list is available on ECHA’s website and shows consumers and industry which chemicals are identified as SVHCs, Substances placed on the Candidate List can move to another list
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material. Ordered structures occur from the nature of the constituent particles to form symmetric patterns that repeat along the principal directions of three-dimensional space in matter. The smallest group of particles in the material that constitutes the pattern is the unit cell of the structure. The unit cell completely defines the symmetry and structure of the crystal lattice. The repeating patterns are said to be located at the points of the Bravais lattice, the lengths of the principal axes, or edges, of the unit cell and the angles between them are the lattice constants, called lattice parameters. The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups, all possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space may be described by the 230 space groups. The crystal structure and symmetry play a role in determining many physical properties, such as cleavage, electronic band structure.
The crystal structure of a material can be described in terms of its unit cell, the unit cell is a box containing one or more atoms arranged in three dimensions. The unit cells stacked in three-dimensional space describe the arrangement of atoms of the crystal. Commonly, atomic positions are represented in terms of fractional coordinates, the atom positions within the unit cell can be calculated through application of symmetry operations to the asymmetric unit. The asymmetric unit refers to the smallest possible occupation of space within the unit cell and this does not, however imply that the entirety of the asymmetric unit must lie within the boundaries of the unit cell. Symmetric transformations of atom positions are calculated from the group of the crystal structure. Vectors and planes in a lattice are described by the three-value Miller index notation. It uses the indices ℓ, m, and n as directional parameters, which are separated by 90°, by definition, the syntax denotes a plane that intercepts the three points a1/ℓ, a2/m, and a3/n, or some multiple thereof.
That is, the Miller indices are proportional to the inverses of the intercepts of the plane with the unit cell, if one or more of the indices is zero, it means that the planes do not intersect that axis. A plane containing a coordinate axis is translated so that it no longer contains that axis before its Miller indices are determined, the Miller indices for a plane are integers with no common factors. Negative indices are indicated with horizontal bars, as in, in an orthogonal coordinate system for a cubic cell, the Miller indices of a plane are the Cartesian components of a vector normal to the plane. Likewise, the planes are geometric planes linking nodes
Hafnium oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula HfO2. Also known as hafnia, this solid is one of the most common. It is an insulator with a band gap of 5. 3~5.7 eV. Hafnium dioxide is an intermediate in some processes that give hafnium metal and it reacts with strong acids such as concentrated sulfuric acid and with strong bases. It dissolves slowly in hydrofluoric acid to give fluorohafnate anions, at elevated temperatures, it reacts with chlorine in the presence of graphite or carbon tetrachloride to give hafnium tetrachloride. Hafnia adopts the structure as zirconia. Unlike TiO2, which features six-coordinate Ti in all phases and hafnia consists of metal centres. A variety of phases have been experimentally observed, including cubic, tetragonal. Thin films of hafnium oxides, used in semiconductor devices, are often deposited with an amorphous structure. Possible benefits of the structure have led researchers to alloy hafnium oxide with silicon or aluminium. Hafnia is used in coatings, and as a high-κ dielectric in DRAM capacitors.
Hafnium-based oxides were introduced by Intel in 2007 as a replacement for silicon oxide as an insulator in field-effect transistors. The advantage for transistors is its high dielectric constant, the constant of HfO2 is 4–6 times higher than that of SiO2. The dielectric constant and other properties depend on the method, composition. In recent years, hafnium oxide attracts additional interest as a candidate for resistive-switching memories. Because of its high melting point, hafnia is used as a refractory material in the insulation of such devices as thermocouples. Multilayered films of hafnium dioxide and other materials have been developed for use in cooling of buildings. The films reflect sunlight and radiate heat at wavelengths that pass through Earths atmosphere, and can have temperatures several degrees cooler than surrounding materials under the same conditions
A stress concentration is a location in an object where stress is concentrated. An object is stronger when force is distributed over its area, so a reduction in area, e. g. caused by a crack. A material can fail, via a propagating crack, when a concentrated stress exceeds the materials theoretical cohesive strength, the real fracture strength of a material is always lower than the theoretical value because most materials contain small cracks or contaminants that concentrate stress. Fatigue cracks always start at stress raisers, so removing such defects increases the fatigue strength, geometric discontinuities cause an object to experience a local increase in the intensity of a stress field. Examples of shapes that cause these concentrations are cracks, sharp corners, high local stresses can cause objects to fail more quickly, so engineers must design the geometry to minimize stress concentrations. A counter-intuitive method of reducing one of the worst types of stress concentrations, the drilled hole, with its relatively large diameter, causes a smaller stress concentration than the sharp end of a crack.
This is however, a solution that must be corrected at the first opportune time. This ultimate failure is definite since the crack will propagate on its own once the length is greater than 2a, the origins of the value 2a can be understood through Griffiths theory of brittle fracture. Another method used to decrease the concentration is by creating the fillet at the sharp edges. It gives smooth flow of stress streamlines, in a threaded component force flow line is bent as it passes from shank portion to threaded portion as a result stress concentration takes place. To reduce this a small undercut is taken between shank and threaded portion, the term stress raiser is used in orthopedics, a focus point of stress on an implanted orthosis is very likely to be its point of failure. The maximum stress felt near a crack occurs in the area of lowest radius of curvature, a stress concentration factor is the ratio of the highest stress to a reference stress of the gross cross-section. As the radius of curvature approaches zero, the maximum stress approaches infinity, note that the stress concentration factor is a function of the geometry of a crack, and not of its size.
These factors can be found in typical engineering reference materials to predict the stresses that could not be analyzed using strength of materials approaches. This is not to be confused with Stress Intensity Factor, there are experimental methods for measuring stress concentration factors including photoelastic stress analysis, brittle coatings or strain gauges. While all these approaches have been successful, all have experimental, during the design phase, there are multiple approaches to estimating stress concentration factors. Several catalogs of stress concentration factors have been published, perhaps most famous is Stress Concentration Design Factors by Peterson, first published in 1953. Finite element methods are used in design today
Cubic zirconia is the cubic crystalline form of zirconium dioxide. The synthesized material is hard, optically flawless and usually colorless and it should not be confused with zircon, which is a zirconium silicate. It is sometimes erroneously called cubic zirconium and its main competitor as a synthetic gemstone is a more recently cultivated material, synthetic moissanite. Cubic zirconia is crystallographically isometric, an important attribute of a diamond simulant. During synthesis zirconium oxide would naturally form monoclinic crystals, its stable form under normal atmospheric conditions, the physical and optical properties of synthesized CZ vary, all values being ranges. It is a substance, with a specific gravity between 5.6 and 6.0 — at least 1.6 times that of diamond. Cubic zirconia is relatively hard, 8–8.5 on the Mohs scale— slightly harder than most semi-precious natural gems and its refractive index is high at 2. 15–2.18 and its luster is adamantine. Its dispersion is very high at 0.
058–0.066, Cubic zirconia has no cleavage and exhibits a conchoidal fracture. Because of its hardness, it is generally considered brittle. Under shortwave UV cubic zirconia typically fluoresces a yellow, greenish yellow or beige, under longwave UV the effect is greatly diminished, with a whitish glow sometimes being seen. Colored stones may show a strong, complex rare earth absorption spectrum, discovered in 1892, the yellowish monoclinic mineral baddeleyite is a natural form of zirconium oxide. The high melting point of zirconia hinders controlled growth of single crystals, stabilization of cubic zirconium oxide had been realized early on, with the synthetic product stabilized zirconia introduced in 1929. Although cubic, it was in the form of a ceramic, it was used as a refractory material. In 1937, German mineralogists M. V. Stackelberg and K. Chudoba discovered naturally occurring cubic zirconia in the form of microscopic grains included in metamict zircon. This was thought to be a byproduct of the metamictization process, the discovery was confirmed through X-ray diffraction, proving the existence of a natural counterpart to the synthetic product.
Its production eventually exceeded that of earlier synthetics, such as strontium titanate, synthetic rutile, YAG. Some of the earliest research into controlled single-crystal growth of cubic zirconia occurred in 1960s France, though promising, these attempts yielded only small crystals. Later, Soviet scientists under V. V. Osiko at the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow perfected the technique and they named the jewel Fianit after the institutes name FIAN, but the name was not used outside of the USSR
Cerium oxide, known as cerium oxide, cerium trioxide, cerium sesquioxide, cerous oxide or dicerium trioxide, is an oxide of the rare earth metal cerium. It has chemical formula Ce2O3, and is gold-yellow in color, cerium oxide is used as a catalytic converter for the minimisation of CO emissions in the exhaust gases from motor vehicles. The cerium oxide–cerium oxide cycle or CeO2/Ce2O3 cycle is a two step thermochemical water splitting process based on cerium oxide and cerium oxide for hydrogen production, cerium oxide combined with tin oxide in ceramic form is used for illumination with UV light. It absorbs light with a wavelength of 320 nm and emits light with a wavelength of 412 nm and this combination of cerium oxide and tin oxide is rare, and obtained only with difficulty on a laboratory scale. Cerium oxide is produced by the reduction of cerium oxide with hydrogen at approximately 1,400 °C to make air stable cerium oxide, transformation of CeO2 to Ce2O3 films
Monoclinic crystal system
In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems. A crystal system is described by three vectors, in the monoclinic system, the crystal is described by vectors of unequal lengths, as in the orthorhombic system. They form a rectangular prism with a parallelogram as its base, hence two vectors are perpendicular, while the third vector meets the other two at an angle other than 90°. There is only one monoclinic Bravais lattice in two dimensions, the oblique lattice, two monoclinic Bravais lattices exist, the primitive monoclinic and the centered monoclinic lattices. In this axis setting, the primitive and base-centered lattices interchange in centering type, sphenoidal is monoclinic hemimorphic, Domatic is monoclinic hemihedral, Prismatic is monoclinic normal. Crystal structure Hurlbut, Cornelius S. Klein, hahn, Theo, ed. International Tables for Crystallography, Volume A, Space Group Symmetry
In physics, metastability denotes the phenomenon when a dynamical system spends an extended time in a configuration other than the systems state of least energy. During a metastable state of finite lifetime, all state-describing parameters reach, a conceptual analogy may be drawn with a ball resting in a hollow on a slope. Small perturbations will result in the ball settling back into its current hollow, isomerisation is another common example of metastability. Higher energy isomers are long lived as they are prevented from rearranging to their ground state by barriers in the potential energy. The metastability concept originated in the physics of first-order phase transitions and it acquired new meaning in the study of aggregated subatomic particles or in molecules, macromolecules or clusters of atoms and molecules. Later, it was borrowed for the study of decision-making and information transmission systems, many complex natural and man-made systems can demonstrate metastability. Metastability is common in physics and chemistry – from an atom to statistical ensembles of molecules at molecular levels or as a whole, the abundance of states is more prevalent as the systems grow larger and/or if the forces of their mutual interaction are spatially less uniform or more diverse.
In these systems, the equivalent of thermal fluctuations in molecular systems is the noise that affects signal propagation. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a branch of physics that studies the dynamics of statistical ensembles of molecules via unstable states, being stuck in a thermodynamic trough without being at the lowest energy state is known as having kinetic stability or being kinetically persistent. The particular motion or kinetics of the atoms involved has resulted in getting stuck, metastable states of matter range from melting solids, boiling liquids and sublimating solids to supercooled liquids or superheated liquid-gas mixtures. Extremely pure, supercooled water stays liquid below 0 °C and remains so until applied vibrations or condensing seed doping initiates crystallization centers and this is a common situation for the droplets of atmospheric clouds. Metastable phases are common in condensed matter, for example, diamond is a metastable form of carbon at standard temperature and pressure.
It can be converted to graphite, but only after overcoming an activation energy – an intervening hill, martensite is a metastable phase used to control the hardness of most steel. The bonds between the blocks of polymers such as DNA, RNA and proteins are metastable. Metastable polymorphs of silica are commonly observed, in some cases, such as in the allotropes of solid boron, acquiring a sample of the stable phase is difficult. Generally speaking, emulsions/colloidal systems and glasses are metastable, sandpiles are one system which can exhibit metastability if a steep slope or tunnel is present. Sand grains form a pile due to friction and it is possible for an entire large sand pile to reach a point where it is stable, but the addition of a single grain causes large parts of it to collapse. The avalanche is a problem with large piles of snow
The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure. At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium, the melting point of a substance depends on pressure and is usually specified at standard pressure. When considered as the temperature of the change from liquid to solid. Because of the ability of some substances to supercool, the point is not considered as a characteristic property of a substance. For most substances and freezing points are approximately equal, for example, the melting point and freezing point of mercury is 234.32 kelvins. However, certain substances possess differing solid-liquid transition temperatures, for example, agar melts at 85 °C and solidifies from 31 °C to 40 °C, such direction dependence is known as hysteresis. The melting point of ice at 1 atmosphere of pressure is close to 0 °C. In the presence of nucleating substances the freezing point of water is the same as the melting point, the chemical element with the highest melting point is tungsten, at 3687 K, this property makes tungsten excellent for use as filaments in light bulbs.
Many laboratory techniques exist for the determination of melting points, a Kofler bench is a metal strip with a temperature gradient. Any substance can be placed on a section of the strip revealing its thermal behaviour at the temperature at that point, differential scanning calorimetry gives information on melting point together with its enthalpy of fusion. A basic melting point apparatus for the analysis of crystalline solids consists of an oil bath with a transparent window, the several grains of a solid are placed in a thin glass tube and partially immersed in the oil bath. The oil bath is heated and with the aid of the melting of the individual crystals at a certain temperature can be observed. In large/small devices, the sample is placed in a heating block, the measurement can be made continuously with an operating process. For instance, oil refineries measure the point of diesel fuel online, meaning that the sample is taken from the process. This allows for more frequent measurements as the sample does not have to be manually collected, for refractory materials the extremely high melting point may be determined by heating the material in a black body furnace and measuring the black-body temperature with an optical pyrometer.
For the highest melting materials, this may require extrapolation by several hundred degrees, the spectral radiance from an incandescent body is known to be a function of its temperature. An optical pyrometer matches the radiance of a body under study to the radiance of a source that has been previously calibrated as a function of temperature, in this way, the measurement of the absolute magnitude of the intensity of radiation is unnecessary. However, known temperatures must be used to determine the calibration of the pyrometer, for temperatures above the calibration range of the source, an extrapolation technique must be employed
Calcium oxide, commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. It is a white, alkaline, crystalline solid at room temperature, the broadly used term lime connotes calcium-containing inorganic materials, in which carbonates and hydroxides of calcium, magnesium and iron predominate. By contrast, quicklime specifically applies to the chemical compound calcium oxide. Calcium oxide that survives processing without reacting in building such as cement is called free lime. Both it and a chemical derivative are important commodity chemicals, Calcium oxide is usually made by the thermal decomposition of materials, such as limestone or seashells, that contain calcium carbonate in a lime kiln. This is accomplished by heating the material to above 825 °C, annual worldwide production of quicklime is around 283 million tonnes. China is by far the worlds largest producer, with a total of around 170 million tonnes per year, the United States is the next largest, with around 20 million tonnes per year.
Approximately 1.8 t of limestone is required per 1.0 t of quicklime, quicklime has a high affinity for water and is a more efficient desiccant than silica gel. The reaction of quicklime with water is associated with an increase in volume by a factor of at least 2.5, the major use of quicklime is in the Basic oxygen steelmaking process. Its usage varies from about 30–50 kg/t of steel, the quicklime neutralizes the acidic oxides, SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3, to produce a basic molten slag. Ground quicklime is used in the production of aerated concrete blocks and hydrated lime can considerably increase the load carrying capacity of clay-containing soils. They do this by reacting with finely divided silica and alumina to produce calcium silicates and aluminates, small quantities of quicklime are used in other processes, e. g. the production of glass, calcium aluminate cement, and organic chemicals. The hydrate can be reconverted to quicklime by removing the water by heating it to redness to reverse the hydration reaction, one litre of water combines with approximately 3.1 kilograms of quicklime to give calcium hydroxide plus 3.54 MJ of energy.
This process can be used to provide a convenient portable source of heat, When quicklime is heated to 2,400 °C, it emits an intense glow. This form of illumination is known as a limelight, and was used broadly in theatrical productions prior to the invention of electric lighting, Calcium oxide is a key ingredient for the process of making cement. As a cheap and widely available alkali, about 50% of the total quicklime production is converted to calcium hydroxide before use. Both quick- and hydrated lime are used in the treatment of drinking water, petroleum industry, Water detection pastes contain a mix of calcium oxide and phenolphthalein. Should this paste come into contact with water in a storage tank