click links in text for more info

Ziyarid dynasty

The Ziyarid dynasty was an Iranian dynasty of Gilaki origin that ruled Tabaristan from 930 to 1090. At its greatest extent, it ruled much of present-day northern Iran; the dynasty was descended from Vardanshah, leader of the Shahanshahvand tribe, which traced its descent back to the legendary king Arghush Farhadan, the ruler of Gilan, lived during the time of Kai Khosrow. Vardanshah had a son named Ziyar, who married a sister of the Gilaki king Harusindan, who bore him a son named Mardavij. Mardavij served another Gilaki military leader named Asfar ibn Shiruya, but betrayed the latter and conquered Tabaristan, which led to the foundation of the Ziyarid dynasty, which he named after his father. Mardavij began aggressively expanding his territories, killing Asfar and capturing several important cities in Iran, such as Hamadan, Kashan, Isfahan and Ahvaz from Abbasid, he further planned to restore the Sasanian Empire through conquering Baghdad and ousting the Abbasid Caliphate, but was instead murdered in 935.

After Mardavij's death, his brother and general Vushmgir was crowned as the new Ziyarid ruler in Ray. Hasan ibn Buya, one of the brothers of the Buyid ruler Ali ibn Buya, took advantage of Mardavij's death by seizing Isfahan from Ziyarid rule; the Samanids took advantage of the opportunity, but were defeated by Vushmgir, who wrested Gorgan from Samanid control. However, Vushmgir soon decided to acknowledge Samanid supremacy, in 936 he turned over Gorgan to Makan. Turning against Hasan, he retook Isfahan in 938. In 939 or 940 the Samanid governor Abu'Ali Chaghani attacked Gorgan. Abu'Ali Chaghani engaged Vushmgir in battle in Ray and defeated him, killing Makan in the process. Vushmgir fled to Tabaristan, but was faced there with a revolt by his governor of Sari, al-Hasan ibn al-Fairuzan, a cousin of Makan and blamed the Ziyarid for his death. Vushmgir defeated him. Vushmgir was forced to recognize Samanid authority again. Hasan furthered the Ziyarid's troubles by retaking Isfahan in 940; when Abu'Ali Chaghani left for Samanid Khurasan, Vushmgir retook control of Ray.

He lost it for good in 943, to the Buyid Hasan. Returning to Tabaristan, he was defeated there by al-Hasan, who had occupied Gorgan. Vushmgir fled to the Bavandids of the mountains in eastern Tabaristan to the court of the Samanid Nuh I. Al-Hasan meanwhile allied with Hasan, but when Ibn Muthaj took Ray from the Buyids in 945, he recognized Samanid authority. Still, in 945 Vushmgir captured Gorgan with Samanid support, but did not manage to retain his rule there, it was only in 947 when he was able to take Gorgan and Tabaristan from al-Hasan with the help of a large Samanid army. In 948 Hasan took them from Vushmgir. While al-Hasan supported the Buyids, Vushmgir relied on his Samanid allies. Tabaristan and Gorgan changed hands several times until 955, when in a treaty with the Samanids, Rukn al-Daula promised to leave Vushmgir alone in Tabaristan. Peace between the two sides did not last however. Rukn al-Dawla made a counter-attack, temporarily taking Gorgan in 960 taking both Tabaristan and Gorgan for a short time in 962.

He may have taken Tabaristan and Gorgan in 966, but did not hold on to them for long. Vushmgir was killed by a boar during a hunt in 967, shortly after a Samanid army had arrived for a joint campaign against the Buyids, he was succeeded by his eldest son Bisutun. Bisutun agreed with Rukn al-Dawla to become his vassal in return for protection against the Samanids, which forced the Samanid army to withdraw to Khorasan. In 971, the Abbasid caliph al-Muti gave Bisutun the title of Zahir al-Dawla. Bisutun died in 977, was succeeded by Qabus. However, he was expelled by the Buyid ruler Adud al-Dawla in 980, because he gave refugee to the latter's rival and brother Fakhr al-Dawla; the Buyids now dominated Tabaristan over 17 years. In 998, Qabus re-established his authority there, he established good relations with the Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud of Ghazni who had taken control of Khorasan, but still acted as an independent sovereign. During the reign of Qabus, his kingdom was a major attraction to scholars.

In fact he dedicated his work Chronology to Qabus around 1000 and observed eclipses of the moon in his capital of Gorgan. Due to his tyrannical rule, Qabus was in 1012 overthrown by his own army, was succeeded by his son Manuchihr, who recognized the sovereignty of Mahmud of Ghazni, married one of his daughters. Manuchihr died in 1031, was succeeded by his son Anushirvan Sharaf al-Ma'ali whom Mahmud of Ghazni had chosen as the heir of the Ziyarid dynasty. From 1032 to 1040, the real power behind the throne was held by Abu Kalijar ibn Vayhan, a relative of Anushirvan. In 1035, Abu Kalijar stopped paying tribute to the Ghaznavids. Abu Kalijar, after having learned the consequences of not paying tribute to the Ghaznavids, agreed to continue paying tribute; this gave Anushirvan the opportunity to gain a firm grip over his kingdom. In 1041/1042, the Seljuqs, now the new masters of Khorasan, invaded Anushirvan's domains, which forced him to accept their authority. Anushirvan died in 1059 and

Black Warrior Basin

The Black Warrior Basin is a geologic sedimentary basin of western Alabama and northern Mississippi in the United States. It is named for the Black Warrior River and is developed for coal and coalbed methane production, as well as for conventional oil and natural gas production. Coalbed methane of the Black Warrior Basin has been developed and in production longer than in any other location in the United States; the coalbed methane is produced from the Pennsylvanian Pottsville Coal Interval. The Black Warrior basin was a foreland basin during the Ouachita Orogeny during the Pennsylvanian and Permian Periods; the basin received sediments from the Appalachian orogeny during the Pennsylvanian. The western margin of the basin lies beneath the sediments of the Mississippi embayment where it is contiguous with the Arkoma Basin of northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma; the region existed as a quiescent continental shelf environment through the early Paleozoic from the Cambrian through the Mississippian with the deposition of shelf sandstones, limestone and chert.

Hatch J. R. and M. J. Pawlewicz.. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Black Warrior Basin Province and Mississippi. Reston, VA: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. Geological Survey of Alabama. C.. Pottsville Stratigraphy and the Union Chapel Lagerstatte. Pennsylvanian Footprints in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama, Alabama Paleontological Society Monograph no.1. Buta, R. J. Rindsberg, A. K. and Kopaska-Merkel, D. C. eds. Internet Map Application for the Black Warrior Basin Province, USGS Energy Resources Program, Map Service for the Black Warrior Basin Province, 2002 National Assessment of Oil and Gas

Frederick Herzog

Frederick Ludwig Herzog was an American systematic theologian at Duke University and minister of the United Church of Christ. An impassioned champion of civil rights, his academic focus was liberation theology. Herzog was born on November 1925, in Ashley, North Dakota, he earned his doctorate from Princeton University in 1953 under the supervision of Paul Lehmann after having studied in Germany and Switzerland, where he was an assistant to the theologian Karl Barth. He was ordained to the ministry of the United Church of Christ, the successor to the German Reformed denomination of his childhood. In 1960, he joined the faculty at Duke Divinity School. Herzog taught Christian theology at Duke until his sudden death during a faculty meeting on October 9, 1995. In the spring of 1970, he wrote the first North American article by a white theologian on liberation theology, following James Cone's Black Theology and Black Power published in 1969, in 1972 his Liberation Theology was published. In Justice Church Herzog extended his methodology for liberation theology in North America.

During the final ten years of his life, his writings were affected by his work in Latin America Peru where he assisted with the support of a Methodist-related seminary, the cause of which he was championing at the moment of his death. His daughter, Dagmar Herzog, is professor of history at the CUNY Graduate Center in New York City. Herzog, F. Liberation Theology Herzog, F. European Pietism Reviewed Herzog, F. Justice Church Herzog, F. God-Walk - Liberation Shaping DogmaticsTwo books have been published referring to his work: Theology & Corporate Conscience: Essays in Honor of Frederick Herzog Theology from the Belly of the Whale: A Frederick Herzog Reader The Duke University Libraries has a collection of his papers: Guide to the Frederick Herzog Papers, 1947-2011 and undated Pertinent Articles:

Sonia Cotelle

Sonia Cotelle, née Slobodkine, was a Polish radiochemist. Sonia Cotelle was born in Warsaw, capital of the Vistula Land, in the Russian Empire on 19 June 1896, she was married, but divorced. She graduated from the University of Paris in 1922. While still a student she began working in 1919 as an assistant in the Institute of Radium founded by the Nobel Laureates, Marie Curie and her husband Pierre, in the university's Faculty of Science. Cotelle was in charge of the measurement service between 1924 and 1926, after which she was appointed as a chemist in the Faculté des sciences. Cotelle was sent to the Institute of Radium in Prague, the capital of Czechoslovakia, to set up radium standards there and conducted research at Jáchymov, where uranium ore was mined, she became ill in 1927 radiation poisoning after accidentally ingesting a polonium solution while pipetting it. She recovered. Cotelle "collaborated with Curie on studies of actinium. With Curie she redetermined the half life of ionium using a method that minimized effects of error in atomic weights.

Cotelle used electrolysis to prepare thin samples of radioactive substances for testing. This method allowed determination of polonium’s atomic number by X-ray spectroscopy." She died in 1945 from the cumulative effects of radiation poisoning. Ogilvie, Marilyn & Harvey, eds.. The Biographical Dictionary of Women in Science: Pioneering Lives From Ancient Times to the mid-20th Century. 1: A-K. New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92039-6


The Berwa are a scheduled caste from Indian state Rajasthan. Their main occupations are animal agriculture, they are small landowners in hadoti region of rajasthan. But are agriculture laboures in other areas; until the 1930s, they were called Balais. Berwa and Bairwa are surnames.they have similar customs like meena tribe. Their population was 627 at the 1981 census; this population increased to 931,030 by 2001. They are concentrated in tonk,kota,bundi, jaipur districts of rajasthan; the Berwa are influential despite their smaller population. Feeling exploited by the higher castes, they have been involved in the struggle for social rights for the poor and farmers. Education has become an important means of progress, so the Berwa emphasize education for their children, they follow Hindu marriage practices. However, widows are allowed to marry, there is no child polygyny is allowed. Vermilion and toe rings are some symbols of marriage for women. Most of their workers were cultivators, they use Devanagari characters.

They concentrated in Jaipur district. They adhere to Hinduism including all of its goddesses, they are not vegetarians. The Berwa are endogamous. Women have a low status among the Berwa; the Berwa cremate their dead. Women and men can seek divorce, they were recognized as scheduled caste by the Constitution Order in 1950. They have a procedure for admission to this caste, they have a socio-political body of the Chorasi Panchayat. It deals with the breach of caste norms and other issues

Alberto Bottari de Castello

Alberto Bottari de Castello is an Italian prelate of the Catholic Church who spent his career in the diplomatic service of the Holy See. Alberto Bottari de Castello was born in Montebelluna, Province of Treviso in northern Italy, on 5 July 1942, he was ordained a priest on 11 September 1966. He prepared for a diplomatic career by completing the course of study at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy in 1969. On 18 December 1999, Pope John Paul II named him a titular archbishop and nuncio to Gambia, Guinea and Sierra Leone, he was consecrated a bishop on 6 January 2000. He was appointed Apostolic Nuncio to Japan on 1 April 2005. Pope Benedict XVI named him nuncio to Hungary on 7 June 2011, he retired after reaching the age of 75. Hungary awarded him the Commander's Crosses with Star of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary