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A zoetrope is one of several pre-film animation devices that produce the illusion of motion by displaying a sequence of drawings or photographs showing progressive phases of that motion. It was a cylindrical variation of the phénakisticope, suggested immediately after the stroboscopic discs were introduced in 1833; the definitive version, with replaceable picture strips, was introduced as a toy by Milton Bradley in 1866 and became successful. The name zoetrope was composed from the Greek root words ζωή zoe, "life" and τρόπος tropos, "turning" as a translation of "wheel of life"; the term was coined by inventor William E. Lincoln; the zoetrope consists of a cylinder with cuts vertically in the sides. On the inner surface of the cylinder is a band with images from a set of sequenced pictures; as the cylinder spins, the user looks through the cuts at the pictures across. The scanning of the slits keeps the pictures from blurring together, the user sees a rapid succession of images, producing the illusion of motion.

From the late 19th century, devices working on similar principles have been developed, named analogously as linear zoetropes and 3D zoetropes, with traditional zoetropes referred to as "cylindrical zoetropes" if distinction is needed. The zoetrope works on the same principle as its predecessor, the phenakistoscope, but is more convenient and allows the animation to be viewed by several people at the same time. Instead of being radially arrayed on a disc, the sequence of pictures depicting phases of motion is on a paper strip. For viewing, this is placed against the inner surface of the lower part of an open-topped metal drum, the upper part of, provided with a vertical viewing slit across from each picture; the drum, on a spindle base, is spun. The faster the drum is spun, the smoother the animation appears. An earthenware bowl from Iran, over 5000 years old, could be considered a predecessor of the zoetrope; this bowl is decorated in a series of images portraying a goat jumping toward a tree and eating its leaves.

Though the images are sequential and seem evenly distributed around the bowl, to have the images appear as an animation the bowl would have to rotate quite fast and while a stroboscopic effect would somehow have to be generated. As such, it remains uncertain if the artist who created the bowl intended to create an animation. According to a 4th-century Chinese historical text, the 1st-century BCE Chinese mechanical engineer and craftsman Ding Huan created a lamp with a circular band with images of birds and animals that moved "quite naturally" when the heat of the lamp caused the band to rotate. However, it is unclear whether this created the illusion of motion or whether the account was an interpretation of the spatial movement of the pictures of animals; the same device was referred to as "umbrella lamp" and mentioned as "a variety of zoetrope" which "may well have originated in China" by historian of Chinese technology Joseph Needham. It had pictures painted on thin panes of paper or mica on the sides of a light cylindrical canopy bearing vanes at the top.

When placed over a lamp it would give an impression of movement of men. Needham mentions several other descriptions of figures moving after the lighting of a candle or lamp, but some of these have a semi-fabulous context or can be compared to heat operated carousel toys, it is possible that all these early Chinese examples were the same as, or similar to, the "trotting horse lamp" known in China since before 1000 CE. This is a lantern which on the inside has cut-out silhouettes or painted figures attached to a shaft with a paper vane impeller on top, rotated by heated air rising from a lamp; the moving silhouettes are projected on the thin paper sides of the lantern. Some versions added extra motion with jointed heads, feet or hands of figures triggered by a transversely connected iron wire. None of these lamps are known to have featured sequential substitution of images depicting motion and thus don't display animation in the way that the zoetrope does. John Bate described a simple device in his 1634 book "The Mysteries of Nature and Art".

It consisted of "a light card, with several images set upon it" fastened on the four spokes of a wheel, turned around by heat inside a glass or horn cylinder, "so that you would think the immages to bee living creatures by their motion". The description seems rather close to a simple four-phase animation device depicted and described in Henry V. Hopwood's 1899 book Living Pictures. Hopwood gave date or any additional information for this toy that rotated when blown upon. A similar device inside a small zoetrope drum with four slits, was marketed around 1900 by a Parisian company as L'Animateur. However, Bate's device as it is seen in the accompanying illustration seems not to have animated the images, but rather to have moved the images around spatially. Simon Stampfer, one of the inventors of the phenakistiscope animation disc, suggested in July 1833 in a pamphlet that the sequence of images for the stroboscopic animation could be placed on either a disc, a cylinder or a looped strip of paper or canvas stretched around two parallel rollers.

Stampfer chose to publish his invention in the shape of a disc. After taking notice of Joseph Plateau's invention of the phénakisticope British mathematician William George Horner thought up a cylindrical variation and published details about its mathematical principles in January 1834, he called his device the Dædaleum, as a reference to the Greek myth of Daedalus. Horner's revolving drum had viewing slits between the pictures, instead of above as the zoetrope variations woul

Norwich, New York

Norwich is a city in Chenango County, New York, United States. Surrounded on all sides by the town of Norwich, the city is the county seat of Chenango County; the name is taken from England. Its population was 7,190 at the 2010 census. Lt. Warren Eaton Airport, serving the area, is located north of the city in the town of North Norwich; the first log cabin was built in 1788 by Col. William Monroe, who served as a drummer boy during the Revolutionary War; the town of Norwich was formed in 1793 from the towns of Bainbridge. Afterwards, Norwich, as a "mother town" of the county, lost substantial territory in the formation of new towns. In 1806, Norwich gave up territory to form the towns of Pharsalia and Preston. More of Norwich was lost in 1807 to form parts of the towns of New Columbus. In 1808 and 1820, Norwich exchanged territory with the town of Preston; the central community of Norwich set itself off from the town in 1816 by incorporating as a village becoming the city of Norwich in 1914. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.1 square miles, all of it land.

Unlike many upstate cities, there are few, if any, defined districts. Although the city is divided into six wards for political purposes, neighborhoods are referred to in this manner. Downtown is the main commercial district of Norwich, consisting of North and South Broad streets and West Main streets, lesser side streets, including American Avenue, Lackawanna Avenue, parts of Mechanic and Hayes streets; the downtown district is bordered on the north by Cortland and Mitchell streets, to the south by Front Street and Eaton Avenue. Norwich is located in the Chenango River valley; the river, a tributary of the Susquehanna, winds south along the eastern edge of the city. Along the western border, Canasawacta Creek flows south, until it unites with the Chenango River at the southern city limits. Norwich lies near the center of the triangle that can be drawn connecting the cities of Syracuse and Binghamton, along Interstates 90, 88, 81, respectively; the city is located at the intersection of New York State Route 12 and New York State Route 23.

On Route 12, Utica and access to Interstate 90 is 48 miles to the north, while Binghamton and access to Interstate 81 and Interstate 86, is 40 miles to the south. State Highway 23, which cuts laterally through the northern side of the city, leads east 32 miles to the city of Oneonta and access to Interstate 88, while to the west NY 23 leads in the direction of Cortland and Interstate 81, 42 miles away. For nearly a century, the city had important manufacturing firms, it was the corporate headquarters of the Norwich Pharmacal Company. Formed in 1887 as a partnership between Reverend Lafayette Moore and Oscar G. Bell, a drug store employee, the company grew to become a major developer and manufacturer of medicines and veterinary products, known for its Unguentine antiseptic dressing and Pepto-Bismol, an upset-stomach and anti-diarrhea medication; the company merged with Morton International, Inc. in 1969 and became a subsidiary of Procter & Gamble in 1982. Under corporate restructuring, Procter & Gamble divided the company into several units, each of, subsequently sold.

This caused the loss of many jobs in Norwich, resulting in the city struggling to figure out a new economic model. From 1845 until 1961, Norwich was the home of the Maydole Hammer Factory; the founder, David Maydole, was an enterprising blacksmith who set out to create a hammer with a safely attached head. His hammers proved so successful that Maydole had become the largest hammer manufacturer in the United States by the time of its founder's death in 1892; the Chenango Canal, the New York and Western Railway, the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad once served most of the city's transportation needs. Norwich was the NYO&W's Northern Division point until operations ceased on March 29, 1957; until June 2006, the community was served by the New York and Western Railroad, which operated trains on the old DL&W line between Binghamton and Utica. That service ended as a result of flood damage in 2011 to the portion of the line between Sangerfield and Chenango Forks. A new $8 million campus was constructed for the city's small extension of Morrisville State College.

Due to loss of jobs in the area, population has declined, affecting both admissions and attendance at the college in recent years. NBT Bancorp and Chobani are both headquartered in Norwich. Route 12 bisects the city on a north-south axis, becoming North and South Broad Street within city limits. A community of downtown businesses is found along it. On the north side of town lies the North Plaza, desolate since the departure of anchor tenant Jamesway, a commercial strip of gas stations and fast food outlets. To the south are three plazas just outside city limits, featuring supermarkets, gas stations, fast food, Lowe's and Walmart. Norwich residents travel to the larger nearby cities of Oneonta, Utica, sometimes Cortland, the much larger metropolitan areas of Syracuse and Albany, for goods and services unobtainable locally; as of the census of 2000, there were 7,355 people, 3,131 households, 1,671 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,609.0 people per square mile. There were 3,500 housing units at an average density of 1,717.4 per square mile.

The racial makeup of the city was 96.48% White, 1.39% Black or African America

The Rich Man's Eight Track Tape

The Rich Man's Eight Track Tape is an album by post-hardcore noise rock band Big Black. It was released in 1987 by Go Records; the album is a CD compilation of Big Black's Atomizer album, "Heartbeat" single and Headache EP. The track "Strange Things" from the original Atomizer LP was not included on this release; the album cover for the real Atomizer can be seen in the background of The Rich Man's Eight Track Tape's artwork. The title of the album, the liner notes by Steve Albini, show the band's low regard for compact discs. "Jordan, Minnesota" - 3:20 "Passing Complexion" - 3:04 "Big Money" - 2:29 "Kerosene" - 6:05 "Bad Houses" - 3:09 "Fists of Love" - 4:21 "Stinking Drunk" - 3:27 "Bazooka Joe" - 4:43 "Cables" - 3:09 "Heartbeat" - 3:48 "Things to Do Today" - 1:44 "I Can't Believe" - 1:03 "My Disco" - 2:52 "Grinder" - 2:23 "Ready Men" - 3:51 "Pete, King of the Detectives" - 2:42"Heartbeat" is a cover of the Wire song Heartbeat

Matthias von Schönerer

Mathias Ritter von Schönerer was one of the most important railway pioneers in Austria. He built the Südrampe or South Ramp on the Budweis–Linz–Gmunden wagonway and its extension to Gmunden by the Traunsee lake. Following that, he was responsible for the construction of the Austrian Southern Railway or Südbahn from Vienna to Gloggnitz. After the dismissal of Franz Anton von Gerstner, Mathias Schönerer completed the first railway on continental Europe, the horse-drawn Budweis–Linz–Gmunden wagonway, despite financial and technical difficulties. In 1841 he was responsible for the construction of the first Austrian railway tunnel at Gumpoldskirchen, whose northern portal bears Schönerer's motto Recta sequi in large antiqua letters, he was the construction and operations director of the Vienna-Gloggnitz Railway and in 1839 founded the repair shop near the WGB's Vienna station the Lokomotivfabrik der StEG. During the 1848/49 war he organised the first transportation for the military by train. From 1856 he was on the governing board of the Empress Elisabeth Railway, from 1867 that of the Emperor Franz Joseph Railway.

For his services to railway construction he was elevated to the Austrian nobility in 1860 by Emperor Franz Joseph which entitled him and his descendants to the style of Ritter von in the case of male and von in the case of female offspring. Mathias von Schönerer was the father of the German politician Georg von Schönerer and the actress Alexandrine von Schönerer, he died on 30 October 1881 in his birthplace of Vienna in Austria. List of railway pioneers de:Matthias Schönerer Schönerer, Matthias Ritter von in Constant von Wurzbach Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, 31st vol. Vienna, 1876 Leo Pammer: Hitlers Vorbilder - Georg Heinrich Ritter von Schönerer Matthias von Schönerer in the German National Library catalogue

Vincent Madelgarius

Vincent Madelgarius, aka Maelceadar, Benedictine monk, died 677. His feast day is September 20. Belgian sources state that Vincent Madelgarus was born in Strépy, sometime in the late 6th or early 7th century. One of these was at the other at Soignies. Madelgarus was sent by Dagobert I to Ireland, his wife was Waltrude. However, according to John O'Hanlon, his real name was Maelceadar, he was a Count of Hainault, he was a native of Ireland. Speaking of Vincent Madelgarus's daughter, abbess of Maubeuge, O'Hanlon states: "because her religious father is held to have sought from Ireland the shores of France, where he was renowned as a warrior, where he attained the distinction of being known as Count of Hannonia, or Hainault, in reward for his services, as because with his religious wife, Waldetrude, he visited Ireland, on a mission entrusted to him, by Dagobert I. King of France. Moreover, on her father's side, St. Madelberta. Had Irish blood in her veins, doubtless she inherited many of those happy dispositions, that rendered her worthy to rank with so many other members of a noble and holy family....

St. Madelberga or Madelberta was the daughter of Vincentius and Waldetrude, their children were Landry, afterwards Bishop of Meaux, or of Metz. This latter monarch to increase those honours gave his relative St. Waldetrude, or Waldetrudis, in marriage, their alliance was the happy occasion, for giving at a future time four holy children to the Church, viz.: St. Landric, Bishop of Meaux. Lives of the Irish Saints, Volume 9, Canon John O'Hanlon, 1873-1905. Madelgarus' page at French Wikipedia

Kimberley Land Division

Kimberley Land Division is one of five land divisions of Western Australia recognised in the Land Administration Act 1997. It occupies the same area as the Kimberley region of the state. Schedule 1 of the Act, as with all other preceding Acts which defined the Kimberley Land Division, defines the Division as "all that portion of the State lying to the North of the parallel of 19° 30' South latitude." This represents all of the Kimberley region other than the southern part of Eighty Mile Beach and about half of Shire of Halls Creek. The division was defined in the Land Regulations on 2 March 1887, first appeared in legislation in section 38 of the Land Act 1898. On 12 December 1905, the Surveyor General wrote, "It will be an advantage to have the State divided into as many districts as possible to show to people. I would suggest the division of Kimberley." On 13 June 1906, 12 new land districts were gazetted covering the entire Kimberley division. Section 28 of the Land Act 1933 preserved the wording of the 1898 Act, as did the 1997 act