The praxinoscope was an animation device, the successor to the zoetrope. It was invented in France in 1877 by Charles-Émile Reynaud, like the zoetrope, it used a strip of pictures placed around the inner surface of a spinning cylinder. Someone looking in the mirrors would therefore see a succession of images producing the illusion of motion, with a brighter. In 1889 Reynaud developed the Théâtre Optique, an improved version capable of projecting images on a screen from a roll of pictures. This allowed him to show hand-drawn animated cartoons to larger audiences, the Red Raven Magic Mirror and its special childrens phonograph records, introduced in the US in 1956, was a 20th-century adaptation of the praxinoscope. The Magic Mirror was a sixteen-sided praxinoscopic reflector with angled facets and it was placed over the record players spindle and rotated along with the 78 rpm record, which had a very large label with a sequence of sixteen interwoven animation frames arrayed around its center.
As the record played, the user gazed into the Magic Mirror, in the 1960s, versions of the Red Raven system were introduced in Europe and Japan under various names—Teddy in France and the Netherlands, Mamil Moviton in Italy, etc. The word praxinoscope translates roughly as action viewer, from the Greek roots πραξι- and scop-
The magic lantern or laterna magica is an early type of image projector employing painted pictures or photographs on sheets of glass, a lens, and a bright light source. It was mostly developed in the 17th century and commonly used for entertainment purposes, some lanterns, including those of Christiaan Huygens and Jan van Musschenbroek, used 3 lenses. Originally the pictures were painted on glass slides. Initially figures were rendered with black paint but soon transparent colors were used, sometimes the painting was done on oiled paper. Usually black paint was used as a background to block superfluous light, many slides were finished with a layer of transparent lacquer, but in a period cover glasses were used to protect the painted layer. Most hand-made slides were mounted in frames with a round or square opening for the picture. After 1820 the manufacturing of hand colored printed slides started, often making use of decalcomania transfers, many manufactured slides were produced on strips of glass with several pictures on them and rimmed with a strip of glued paper.
The first photographic lantern slides, called Hyalotypes, were invented by the German-born brothers Ernst Wilhelm and Friedrich Langenheim in 1848 in Philadelphia and patented in 1850. Apart from sunlight, the light sources available at the time of invention in the 17th century were candles and oil lamps. The invention of the Argand lamp in the 1790s helped to make the images brighter, the invention of limelight in the 1820s made them very much brighter. Several types of projection systems existed before the invention of the magic lantern, for these precursors, The magic lantern can be seen as a further development of the Camera Obscura. It was known at least since the 5th century BCE and experimented with in darkened rooms at least since circa 1000 CE, the use of a lens in the hole has been traced back to circa 1550. The portable camera obscura box with a lens was developed in the 17th century, in the 17th century there was an immense interest in optics. The telescope and microscope were invented and apart from being useful to some scientists, the magic lantern would prove to be a perfect successor.
Prominent Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens, is widely accepted as the true inventor of the magic lantern. Christiaans father Constantijn had been acquainted with Cornelis Drebbel who used some unidentified optical techniques to transform himself, Constantijn Huygens wrote very enthusiastically about a camera obscura device that he got from Drebbel in 1622. As this page was found between documents dated in 1659, it is believed to have made in 1659. Huygens probably only constructed the lantern to amuse young family members and soon seemed to regret it, Christiaan initially referred to the magic lantern as la lampe and la lanterne, but in the last years of his life he used the common term laterna magica in some notes
A movie projector is an opto-mechanical device for displaying motion picture film by projecting it onto a screen. Most of the optical and mechanical elements, except for the illumination, the first movie projector was the Zoopraxiscope, invented by British photographer Eadweard Muybridge in 1879. The zoopraxiscope projected images from rotating glass disks in rapid succession to give the impression of motion, the stop-motion images were initially painted onto the glass, as silhouettes. A second series of discs, made in 1892–94, used outline drawings printed onto the discs photographically, a more sophisticated movie projector was invented by Frenchman Louis Le Prince while working in Leeds. In 1888 Le Prince took out a patent for a 16-lens device that combined a motion picture camera with a projector, in 1888, he used an updated version of his camera to film the first ever motion picture, the Roundhay Garden Scene. The pictures were exhibited in Hunslet. The Lumière brothers invented the first successful movie projector and they made their first film, Sortie de lusine Lumière de Lyon, in 1894, which was publicly screened at LEden, La Ciotat a year later.
The first commercial, public screening of cinematographic films happened in Paris on 28 December 1895, the cinematograph was exhibited at the Paris Exhibition of 1900. At the Exhibition, films made by the Lumière Brothers were projected onto a screen measuring 16 by 21 meters. In 1999, digital projectors were being tried out in some movie theatres. These early projectors played the movie stored on a server and played back through the projector, due to their relatively low resolution, the images at the time showed pixelization blocks in some scenes, much like images on early widescreen televisions. By 2006, the advent of much higher 4K resolution digital projection had removed any traces of pixelization, the systems became more compact than the larger machines of four years earlier. By 2009, movie theatres started replacing the film projectors with digital projectors, in 2013, it was estimated that 92% of movie theatres in the United States had converted to digital, with 8% still playing film.
In 2015, numerous popular filmmakers—including Quentin Tarantino and Christopher Nolan—lobbied large studios to commit to purchase an amount of 35 mm film from Kodak. The decision ensured that Kodaks 35mm film production would continue for several years, nowadays film projectors are considered obsolete as high-resolution digital projectors offer many advantages over traditional film units. For example, digital projectors contain no moving parts except fans, can be operated remotely and they allow for much easier, less expensive, and more reliable storage and distribution of content, including the ability to display live broadcasts. According to the theory of the phi phenomenon, the brain constitutes an experience of apparent movement when presented with a sequence of near-identical still images. Persistence of vision should be compared with the phenomena of beta movement
The megalethoscope is an optical apparatus designed by Carlo Ponti of Venice before 1862. The megalethoscope is the evolution of the alethoscope, patented by Ponti in 1861, in it, photographs are viewed through a large lens, which creates the optical illusion of depth and perspective. The albumen photographs are either backlit by an internal light source—usually an oil or kerosene lantern—or lit by daylight admitted via a system of opening doors and others produced specially prepared photographs for use in the Megalethoscope. The photographs themselves were translucent and were coloured and pierced to create visual effects. The megalethoscope was and is confused with the stereoscope which was of a different design. However, the megalethoscope and the alethoscope are capable of an illusion of relief. Princeton University Librarys Megalethoscope George Eastman House Online Megalethoscope Viewer George Eastman House blog post on the Megalethoscope
The cut-out shapes of the puppets sometimes include translucent color or other types of detailing. Various effects can be achieved by moving both the puppets and the light source, a talented puppeteer can make the figures appear to walk, fight and laugh. Shadow play is popular in various cultures, currently there are more than 20 countries known to have shadow show troupes, Shadow play is an old tradition and it has a long history in Southeast Asia, especially in Indonesia, Malaysia and Cambodia. It is considered as an ancient art in other parts of Asia such as in China, India and it is known in the West from Turkey, Greece to France. It is a form of entertainment for both children and adults in many countries around the world. Shadow play probably developed from par shows with narrative scenes painted on a large cloth, as the shows were mostly performed at night the par was illuminated with an oil lamp. Similar storytelling with pictures may date back to the Harappa civilization, by at least around 200 BCE the figures on cloth seem to have been replaced with puppetry in Indian tholu bomalatta shows.
These are performed behind a screen with flat, jointed puppets made of colorfully painted transparent leather. The puppets are held close to the screen and lit from behind, while hands and arms are manipulated with attached canes and lower legs swinging freely from the knee. Shadow puppets remained popular until recently in India, including the Tholu Bommalata of Andhra Pradesh, the Togalu Gombeyaata, leather puppets in Karnataka, and the Ravana Chhaya of Odisha. There are great similarities between Indonesian shadow puppetry called Wayang kulit and Indian shadow play, but it is whether it was imported from India or originated in Indonesia. It has been theorized to have been around since 1500 BCE, around 860 CE an Old Javanese charter issued by Maharaja Sri Lokapala mentions three sorts of performers, atapukan and abanol. Ringgit is described in an 11th century Javanese poem as a shadow figure. Wayang kulit is particularly popular in Java and Bali, the term derived from the word wayang literally means shadow or imagination in Javanese, connotes spirit.
The word kulit means skin, as the material from which the puppet is made is thin perforated leather sheets made from buffalo skin, the performances of shadow puppet theater in Bali originally lasted as long as six hours or until dawn. The complete wayang kulit troupes include dalang and sinden, some of the nayaga performed as male choral singer. The dalang played the wayang behind the screen illuminated by oil lamp or modern halogen lamp. The flat puppet has moveable joints that are animated by hand, the handle of the rod is made of carved buffalo horn
Eadweard Muybridge was an English photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, and early work in motion-picture projection. He adopted the name Eadweard Muybridge, believing it to be the original Anglo-Saxon form of his name, at age 20, he emigrated to America, first to New York, as a bookseller, and to San Francisco. He returned to England in 1861, and took up photography, learning the wet-plate collodion process. He went back to San Francisco in 1867, and in 1868 his large photographs of Yosemite Valley made him world-famous, in 1874 he shot and killed Major Harry Larkyns, his wifes lover, but was acquitted in a jury trial on the grounds of justifiable homicide. He travelled for more than a year in Central America on an expedition in 1875. He spent much of his years giving lectures and demonstrations of his photography and early motion picture sequences, travelling back to England. He edited and published compilations of his work, which greatly influenced visual artists and he returned to his native England permanently in 1894, and in 1904, the Kingston Museum, containing a collection of his equipment, was opened in his hometown.
Edward James Muggeridge was born and raised in England, Muggeridge changed his name several times, starting with Muggridge. In 1855, in the United States, he used the surname Muygridge, after he returned from Britain to the United States in 1867, he used the surname Muybridge. In addition, he used the pseudonym Helios to sign many of his photographs and he used this as the name of his studio and made it the middle name for his only son, Florado Helios Muybridge, born in 1874. While travelling on an expedition in the Spanish-speaking nations of Central America in 1875. After an 1882 trip to England, he changed the spelling of his first name to Eadweard and he used Eadweard Muybridge for the rest of his career, but his gravestone carries his name as Eadweard Maybridge. Muybridge was born in Kingston upon Thames, in the county of Surrey in England, on 9 April 1830 to John and Susanna Muggeridge, he had three brothers. His father was a grain and coal merchant, with spaces on the ground floor of their house adjacent to the River Thames at No.30 High Street.
After his father died in 1843, his mother carried on the business and his cousin Norman Selfe who grew up in Kingston upon Thames moved to Australia and, following a family tradition, became a renowned engineer. Edwards younger brother George born in 1833 is found living with his Uncle Samuel in 1851 after the death of his Father in 1843 which establishes the lineage of Edward James Muggeridge. He started a career as a agent for the London Printing and Publishing Company. At the time, the city was booming, with 40 bookstores, nearly 60 hotels, in his life, he wrote about having spent time in New Orleans and New York City during his early years in the United States
Thomas Alva Edison was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as Americas greatest inventor. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and the long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. Edison was an inventor, holding 1,093 US patents in his name, as well as many patents in the United Kingdom, France. Edisons inventions contributed to mass communication and, in particular, telecommunications and these included a stock ticker, a mechanical vote recorder, a battery for an electric car, electrical power, recorded music and motion pictures. His advanced work in these fields was an outgrowth of his career as a telegraph operator. Edison developed a system of generation and distribution to homes, businesses. His first power station was on Pearl Street in Manhattan, New York, Thomas Edison was born in Milan and grew up in Port Huron, Michigan. He was the seventh and last child of Samuel Ogden Edison, Jr.
and Nancy Matthews Elliott. His father, the son of a Loyalist refugee, had moved as a boy with the family from Nova Scotia, settling in southwestern Ontario, in a known as Shewsbury, Vienna. Samuel Jr. eventually fled Ontario because he took part in the unsuccessful Mackenzie Rebellion of 1837 and his father, Samuel Sr. had earlier fought in the War of 1812 as captain of the First Middlesex Regiment. By contrast, Samuel Jr. s struggle found him on the losing side, once across the border, he found his way to Milan, Ohio. His patrilineal family line was Dutch by way of New Jersey and his mother taught him at home. Much of his education came from reading R. G, parkers School of Natural Philosophy and The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art. Edison developed hearing problems at an early age, the cause of his deafness has been attributed to a bout of scarlet fever during childhood and recurring untreated middle-ear infections. In his years, he modified the story to say the injury occurred when the conductor, in helping him onto a moving train, Edisons family moved to Port Huron, after the railroad bypassed Milan in 1854 and business declined.
Edison sold candy and newspapers on trains running from Port Huron to Detroit and he briefly worked as a telegraph operator in 1863 for the Grand Trunk Railway at Stratford, Ontario railway at age 16. He was held responsible for a near collision and he studied qualitative analysis and conducted chemical experiments on the train until he left the job. Edison obtained the right to sell newspapers on the road, with the aid of four assistants, he set in type and printed the Grand Trunk Herald
A toromax is a device for viewing a stereoscopic pair of separate images, depicting left-eye and right-eye views of the same scene, as a single three-dimensional image. In current practice, the images are prepared so that the scene appears to be beyond this virtual window, through which objects are allowed to protrude. A divider or other view-limiting feature is provided to prevent each eye from being distracted by seeing the image intended for the other eye. The earliest type of stereoscope was invented by Sir Charles Wheatstone in 1838 and it used a pair of mirrors at 45 degree angles to the users eyes, each reflecting a picture located off to the side. Wheatstones stereoscope was introduced in the year before the first practical photographic process became available and this type of stereoscope has the advantage that the two pictures can be very large if desired. Contrary to an assertion, David Brewster did not invent the stereoscope. This allowed a reduction in size, creating devices, which became known as Brewster Stereoscopes.
Almost overnight a 3D industry developed and 250,000 stereoscopes were produced, stereographers were sent throughout the world to capture views for the new medium and feed the demand for 3D. Cards were printed with these views often with explanatory text when the cards were looked at through the double-lensed viewer, sometimes called a stereopticon. In 1861 Oliver Wendell Holmes created and deliberately did not patent a handheld, the stereoscope, which dates from the 1850s, consisted of two prismatic lenses and a wooden stand to hold the stereo card. This type of stereoscope remained in production for a century and there are still making them in limited production currently. In the mid-20th century the View-Master stereoscope, with its rotating cardboard disks containing image pairs, was popular first for virtual tourism, in 2010, Hasbro started producing a stereoscope designed to hold an iPhone or iPod Touch, called the My3D. In 2014, Google released the template for a papercraft stereoscope called Google Cardboard, apps on the mobile phone substitute for stereo cards, these apps can sense rotation and expand the stereoscopes capacity into that of a full-fledged virtual reality device.
The underlying technology is otherwise unchanged from earlier stereoscopes, several fine arts photographers and graphic artists have and continue to produce original artwork to be viewed using stereoscopes. A simple stereoscope is limited in the size of the image that may be used, a more complex stereoscope uses a pair of horizontal periscope-like devices, allowing the use of larger images that can present more detailed information in a wider field of view. The stereoscope is essentially an instrument in which two photographs of the object, taken from slightly different angles, are simultaneously presented. A moving image extension of the stereoscope has a vertically mounted drum containing a wheel upon which are mounted a series of stereographic cards which form a moving picture. The cards are restrained by a gate and when sufficient force is available to bend the card it slips past the gate and into view and these coin-enabled devices were found in arcades in the late 19th and early 20th century and were operated by the viewer using a hand crank
The Kaiserpanorama is a form of stereoscopic entertainment medium used chiefly in the 19th and early 20th centuries, a precursor to film, invented by August Fuhrmann. It was patented by the inventor ca, there would be a number of viewing stations through which people would peer through a pair of lenses showing a number of rotating stereoscopic glass slides. By 1910 he is said to have controlled exhibitions in over 250 branches across Europe, a kaiserpanorama would normally have around 25 wooden stations, each with a pair of viewing lenses. Inside the device there would be a rotating mechanism showing numerous stereoscopic images on rear-illuminated glass, another example is the Warsaw Fotoplastikon, built in 1905, despite very similar design, is not under the name kaiserpanorama. During the German occupation, it was used by the Polish resistance as a meeting point, there was a dismantled kaiserpanorama in Snibston Discovery Museum in Coalville, Leicestershire, UK. However, since the museum is now closed, the item is now in storage, the museum of the occupation at the Oskar Schindlers Enamel Factory in Kraków, uses a fotoplastikon to show historical pictures
The surroundings of the projected image have to be relatively dark for the image to be clear, so many historical camera obscura experiments were performed in dark rooms. The term camera obscura refers to constructions or devices that use of the principle within a box. Camerae obscurae with a lens in the opening have been used since the second half of the 16th century, before the term camera obscura was first used in 1604, many other expressions were used including cubiculum obscurum, cubiculum tenebricosum, conclave obscurum and locus obscurus. Rays of light travel in straight lines and change when they are reflected and partly absorbed by an object, retaining information about the color, lit objects reflect rays of light in all directions. The human eye itself works much like a camera obscura with an opening, a biconvex lens, a camera obscura device consists of a box, tent or room with a small hole in one side. Light from a scene passes through the hole and strikes a surface inside, where the scene is reproduced and reversed.
The image can be projected onto paper, and can be traced to produce an accurate representation. In order to produce a reasonably clear projected image, the aperture has to be about 1/100th the distance to the screen, many camerae obscurae use a lens rather than a pinhole because it allows a larger aperture, giving a usable brightness while maintaining focus. As the pinhole is made smaller, the image gets sharper, with too small a pinhole, the sharpness worsens, due to diffraction. Using mirrors, as in an 18th-century overhead version, it is possible to project a right-side-up image, another more portable type is a box with an angled mirror projecting onto tracing paper placed on the glass top, the image being upright as viewed from the back. There are theories that occurrences of camera obscura effects inspired paleolithic cave paintings and it is suggested that camera obscura projections could have played a role in Neolithic structures. Perforated gnomons projecting an image of the sun were described in the Chinese Zhoubi Suanjing writings.
The location of the circle can be measured to tell the time of day. In Arab and European cultures its invention was attributed to Egyptian astronomer. Some ancient sightings of gods and spirits, especially in worship, are thought to possibly have been conjured up by means of camera obscura projections. In these writings it is explained how the image in a collecting-point or treasure house is inverted by an intersecting point that collected the light. Light coming from the foot of a person would partly be hidden below. Rays from the head would partly be hidden above and partly form the part of the image