Zora Neale Hurston was an American author and filmmaker. She portrayed racial struggles in published research on hoodoo; the most popular of her four novels is Their Eyes Were Watching God, published in 1937. She wrote more than 50 short stories and essays. Hurston was born in Notasulga and moved with her family to Eatonville, Florida, in 1894, she used Eatonville as the setting for many of her stories. It is now the site of the "Zora! Festival", held each year in her honor. In her early career, Hurston conducted anthropological and ethnographic research while a student at Barnard College and Columbia University, she had an interest in African-American and Caribbean folklore, how these contributed to the community's identity. She wrote fiction about contemporary issues in the black community and became a central figure of the Harlem Renaissance, her short satires, drawing from the African-American experience and racial division, were published in anthologies such as The New Negro and Fire!!. After moving back to Florida, Hurston wrote and published her literary anthropology on African-American folklore in North Florida and Men, her first three novels: Jonah's Gourd Vine.
Published during this time was Tell My Horse: Voodoo and Life in Haiti and Jamaica, documenting her research on rituals in Jamaica and Haiti. Hurston's works concerned both the African-American experience and her struggles as an African-American woman, her novels went unrecognized by the literary world for decades. Interest was revived in 1975 after author Alice Walker published an article, "In Search of Zora Neale Hurston", in the March issue of Ms. magazine that year. Hurston's manuscript Every Tongue Got to Confess, a collection of folktales gathered in the 1920s, was published posthumously in 2001 after being discovered in the Smithsonian archives, her nonfiction book Barracoon: The Story of the Last "Black Cargo", about the life of Cudjoe Lewis, was published posthumously in 2018. Hurston was the fifth of eight children of Lucy Ann Hurston. All of her four grandparents had been born into slavery, her father was a Baptist preacher and sharecropper, who became a carpenter, her mother was a school teacher.
She was born in Notasulga, Alabama, on January 7, 1891, where her father grew up and her paternal grandfather was the preacher of a Baptist church. When she was three, her family moved to Florida. In 1887, it was one of the first all-black towns incorporated in the United States. Hurston said. Sometimes she claimed it as her birthplace. A few years her father was elected as mayor of the town in 1897. In 1902 he was called to serve as minister of Macedonia Missionary Baptist; as an adult, Hurston used Eatonville as a setting in her stories—it was a place where African Americans could live as they desired, independent of white society. In 1901, some northern schoolteachers had visited Eatonville and given Hurston a number of books that opened her mind to literature, she described this personal literary awakening as a kind of "birth". Hurston lived for the rest of her childhood in Eatonville and described the experience of growing up there in her 1928 essay, "How It Feels To Be Colored Me". Hurston's mother died in 1904, her father subsequently married Mattie Moge in 1905.
This was considered scandalous, as it was rumored that he had had sexual relations with Moge before his first wife's death. Hurston's father and stepmother sent her to a Baptist boarding school in Florida, they stopped paying her tuition and she was dismissed. In 1916, Hurston was employed as a maid by the lead singer of the Gilbert & Sullivan theatrical company. In 1917, she resumed her formal education, attending Morgan College, the high school division of Morgan State University, a black college in Baltimore, Maryland. At this time to qualify for a free high-school education, the 26-year-old Hurston began claiming 1901 as her year of birth, she graduated from the high school of Morgan State University in 1918. In 1918, Hurston began her studies at Howard University, a black college in Washington, DC, she was one of the earliest initiates of Zeta Phi Beta sorority, founded by and for black women, co-founded The Hilltop, the university's student newspaper. She took courses in Spanish, English and public speaking and earned an associate degree in 1920.
In 1921, she wrote a short story, "John Redding Goes to Sea", which qualified her to become a member of Alain Locke's literary club, The Stylus. Hurston left Howard in 1924, in 1925 was offered a scholarship by Barnard trustee Annie Nathan Meyer to Barnard College of Columbia University, a women's college, where she was the sole black student. While she was at Barnard, she conducted ethnographic research with noted anthropologist Franz Boas of Columbia University, studied with him as a graduate student, she worked with Ruth Benedict and fellow anthropology student Margaret Mead. Hurston received her B. A. in anthropology in 1928, when she was 37. Hurston had met Charlotte Osgood Mason, a philanthropist and literary patron, who became interested in her work and career, she had supported other African-American authors, such as Langston Hughes and Alain Locke, who had recommended Hurston to her. But she tried to direct their work. Mason supported Hurston's travel to the South for research from 1927 to 1932, with a stipend of $200 per month.
In return, she wanted Hurston to give her all the
Faustin Kayumba Nyamwasa is a Rwandan former Lieutenant general, the Chief of Staff of the Rwandan Army from 1998 to 2002. He was head of Rwandan intelligence from 1998 to 2002 and served as Rwanda's ambassador to India between 2004 and 2010, he survived an assassination attempt in 2010. Nyamwasa has been an opposition leader in exile since as part of the Rwanda National Congress. A Tutsi born in Rwanda, Nyamwasa grew up in refugee camps in Uganda and earned a law degree in Makerere University, he joined Yoweri Museveni's National Resistance Army in January 1986 and served as a Ugandan military officer before 1990. With Paul Kagame, he contributed to the creation of the Rwandan Patriotic Front in the late 1980s and was considered a central figure in the military during the RPF campaign and the post genocidal period, when he oversaw anti-insurgency campaigns in the country's north-west. A 2006 French inquiry with the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda accused Nyamwasa and four other officials of organizing the shooting down the plane of Rwandan president Juvénal Habyarimana.
The event is cited as the catalyst for the Rwandan genocide. Nyamwasa has been accused by Spain of ordering the killing of three Spanish NGO workers and a Canadian priest; the group were targeted because they had evidence of the RPF killing Hutu civilians. Nyamwasa may have been falling out with Kagame as early as 1998. Historian Gérard Prunier states that he and others may have been envious of the foreign aide money being siphoned off by Kagame and friends around this time. An RPF invasion of eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo was seen as a way for all to get "a share of the spoils". Nyamwasa was made Rwandan ambassador to India in 2004 in an attempt by Kagame to keep a political rival far away from the country; when he returned to Rwanda to bury his mother, he was summoned by military officials who are alleged to demand "he write Kagame an apology for a list of perceived infractions." In response, Nywamwasa sought exile there. In South Africa, Nyamwasa partnered with former RPF official Gerald Gahima and Theogene Rudasingwa to create the opposition Rwanda National Congress.
The RNC has joined with a coalition of Hutu who oppose President Kagame. The Rwandan government stated that he may have been working with Colonel Patrick Karegeya, another former intelligence head, living in exile in South Africa. Karegeya was found murdered in a Johannesburg hotel on December 31, 2013; the RNC accuse agents of President Kagame of carrying out the assassination. In June 2010, Brigadier General Jean Bosco Kazura, head of the Rwandese Association Football Federation, traveled to South Africa to see the World Cup and contacted Nyamwasa. Kazura was recalled and placed under arrest, although an army spokesman said this was purely because he had failed to obtain permission to travel. Nyamwasa was shot in the stomach in Johannesburg, South Africa on 19 June 2010. Several people arrested after the shooting were found to be Rwandan. Kayumba was recorded to have said that Kagame wants him dead because he challenges his dictatorial views. Nyamwasa's wife stated. Al-Jazeera reported that "Rosette said they were in the parking lot of their home and a man came to the side of the car with a pistol and shot at her husband who managed to get out of the car and there was a scuffle.
The driver of the car chased the assailant away." Four men were convicted for the attempt on Nyamwasa's life. Rwandan businessman Pascal Kanyandekwe was accused by a South African magistrate of masterminding the plot, but was not brought to trial. Kanyandekwe was said to have tried to bribe a police officer with $1 million to let him off; the day after the assassination attempt, President Kagame told a rally “Whoever betrays the country will pay the price, I assure you... Whoever it is, it is a matter of time.”Jean-Léonard Rugambage, a Rwandan journalist who investigated the attempt on Nyamwasa's life, was murdered a few days in Kigali. Nyamwasa is accused by Rwandan authorities of involvement in acts of terrorism, including three grenade attacks in Kigali on 19 February 2010, but was not arrested in South Africa due to a lack of evidence and extradition treaties between the two countries. In 2011, the Military High Court in Kigali condemned him and other RNC founders for terrorist acts, threat to state security and public order.
He was removed from the army and sentenced to 24 years in prison. All four men were tried in absentia. A December 2018 report from the United Nations accuses Nyamwasa of traveling back and forth from South Africa and the South Kivu province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo recruiting soldiers to fight Rwanda, his alleged group, called P5, is said to be under the umbrella of the opposition group in exile Rwanda National Congress. P5 is alleged to receive financial support from Burundi and Uganda, additional recruits from South Africa and Tanzania, he was married to Rosette Nyamwasa
Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg, has been heir apparent to the crown of Luxembourg since his father's accession in 2000. Prince Guillaume was born in 11 November 1981 at the Grand Duchess Charlotte Maternity Hospital in Luxembourg City and is the eldest child of Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg and his wife, Cuban-born Grand Duchess Maria Teresa, he was named after his father's youngest brother Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg. His godparents are Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg. Guillaume has four younger siblings: Prince Félix, Prince Louis, Princess Alexandra and Prince Sébastien. Guillaume's education includes Lycée Robert-Schumann in Luxembourg, he began his higher education studies in the United Kingdom where he studied at University College and Brunel University, both in England. In 2006 he entered Institut Philanthropos in Fribourg, where he spent a year studying philosophy and anthropology, he studied letters and political science at the Institut Albert-le-Grand in Angers, receiving his bachelor's degree with honors in 2009.
His degree was issued by Université d'Angers, as a result of a partnership agreement between the two schools. Guillaume has been heir apparent to the crown of Luxembourg since his father's accession in 2000. If he succeeds to the grand ducal throne, he will reign as Guillaume V, he has been honorary chairman of the Board of Economic Development of Luxembourg since 2001. The Hereditary Grand Duke is patron to the Luxembourg Cycling Sport Federation, Youth Hostels Central, National Association of Road Victims, Chamber Orchestra of Luxembourg, Youth Harmony Orchestra of the European Union, as well as to Young Entrepreneurs Luxembourg and Special Olympics Luxembourg Associations. During the summer of 1997, Guillaume participated as a member of Luxembourg Scout Movement in a humanitarian camp in Nepal, he involved in a reforestation project and other actions for the benefit of the less favored communities. In 2017, the Hereditary Grand Duke joined the board of directors of the World Scout Foundation to support the development of scouting around the world.
In 1999, he participated in a charitable mission to Aguascalientes to provide the educational and social assistance to young people in one of the most deprived areas in Mexico. After having chaired for more than 10 years in Kräizbierg Foundation, which works for people with disabilities. Since 18 January 2016, the Hereditary Grand Duke has been a member of the board of directors of Europäische Stiftung Kaiserdom zu Speyer Foundation. At the occasion of his 30th birthday, he gave interviews during which stated that he was in a relationship with a "dear miss", going strong for more than a year but insisted that they need some more time to evaluate their possible future. On 26 April 2012, the court announced the engagement of the Hereditary Grand Duke to the Belgian Countess Stéphanie de Lannoy. Guillaume and Stéphanie share a common descent from Charles Marie, Prince & 5th Duke d’Arenberg, which means that Guillaume's father and Stéphanie are 7th cousins; the civil wedding took place on Friday, 19 October 2012.
On 6 December 2019 it was announced by the Marshall of the Court that the Hereditary Grand Duke and Hereditary Grand Duchess are expecting their first child due in May 2020. Guillaume is interested in music and sports, he speaks Luxembourgish, German and English. He represents his parents in many foreign activities. 11 November 1981 – 28 July 1987: His Royal Highness Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg, Prince of Nassau, Prince of Bourbon-Parma 28 July 1987 – 18 December 2000: His Royal Highness Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg, Prince of Nassau 18 December 2000 – present: His Royal Highness The Hereditary Grand Duke of LuxembourgHis style and title in full is: His Royal Highness Prince Guillaume Jean Joseph Marie, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Hereditary Prince of Nassau, Prince of Bourbon-Parma. Knight of the Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau Grand Cross of Order of Adolphe of Nassau Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Oak Crown Belgium: Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown France: Grand Officer of the Order of the Legion of Honour Italy: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Orange-NassauRecipient of the King Willem-Alexander Inauguration Medal Portugal: Grand Cross of the Order of Aviz Slovakia: Grand Officer of the Order of the White Double Cross Grand Duke of Luxembourg Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg Le Grand-Duc héritier – Official website of the Grand Ducal Palace