Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 854,047 within the city proper, 1,357,675 in the urban area and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area; the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, Haarlem. The Amsterdam metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, which has a population of 8.1 million. Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel. Originating as a small fishing village in the late 12th century, Amsterdam became one of the most important ports in the world during the Dutch Golden Age, as a result of its innovative developments in trade. During that time, the city was the leading centre for trade. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, many new neighbourhoods and suburbs were planned and built.
The 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Since the annexation of the municipality of Sloten in 1921 by the municipality of Amsterdam, the oldest historic part of the city lies in Sloten, dating to the 9th century; as the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered an alpha- world city by the Globalization and World Cities study group. The city is the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, including Philips, AkzoNobel, TomTom and ING. Many of the world's largest companies are based in Amsterdam or established their European headquarters in the city, such as leading technology companies Uber and Tesla. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment and infrastructure by Mercer; the city was ranked 4th place globally as top tech hub in the Savills Tech Cities 2019 report, 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009.
The Port of Amsterdam to this day remains the second in the country, the fifth largest seaport in Europe. Famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, philosopher Baruch Spinoza; the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city centre. Amsterdam's main attractions include its historic canals, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum, Hermitage Amsterdam, the Anne Frank House, the Scheepvaartmuseum, the Amsterdam Museum, the Heineken Experience, the Royal Palace of Amsterdam, Natura Artis Magistra, Hortus Botanicus Amsterdam, NEMO, the red-light district and many cannabis coffee shops, they draw more than 5 million international visitors annually. The city is well known for its nightlife and festival activity, it is one of the world's most multicultural cities, with at least 177 nationalities represented. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river and a dam across it, giving its name to the village: "Aemstelredamme".
The earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated 27 October 1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V. This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges and dams; the certificate describes the inhabitants. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam. Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century; this does not mean that there was a settlement since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat, for use as fuel. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306. From the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished from trade with the Hanseatic League. In 1345, an alleged Eucharistic miracle in the Kalverstraat rendered the city an important place of pilgrimage until the adoption of the Protestant faith.
The Miracle devotion was kept alive. In the 19th century after the jubilee of 1845, the devotion was revitalized and became an important national point of reference for Dutch Catholics; the Stille Omgang—a silent walk or procession in civil attire—is the expression of the pilgrimage within the Protestant Netherlands since the late 19th century. In the heyday of the Silent Walk, up to 90,000 pilgrims came to Amsterdam. In the 21st century this has reduced to about 5000. In the 16th century, the Dutch rebelled against Philip II of his successors; the main reasons for the uprising were the imposition of new taxes, the tenth penny, the religious persecution of Protestants by the newly introduced Inquisition. The revolt escalated into the Eighty Years' War, which led to Dutch independence. Pushed by Dutch Revolt leader William the Silent, the Dutch Republic became known for its relative religious tolerance. Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, Huguenots from France, prosperous merchants and printers from Flanders, economic and religious refugees
The Latin word basilica has three distinct applications in modern English. The word was used to refer to an ancient Roman public building, where courts were held, as well as serving other official and public functions, it had the door at one end and a raised platform and an apse at the other, where the magistrate or other officials were seated. The basilica was centrally located in every Roman town adjacent to the main forum. Subsequently, the basilica was not built near a forum but adjacent to a palace and was known as a "palace basilica"; as the Roman Empire adopted Christianity, the major church buildings were constructed with this basic architectural plan and thus it became popular throughout Europe. It continues to be used in an architectural sense to describe rectangular buildings with a central nave and aisles, a raised platform at the opposite end from the door. In Europe and the Americas the basilica remained the most common architectural style for churches of all Christian denominations, though this building plan has become less dominant in new buildings since the latter 20th century.
Thirdly, the term refers to an official designation: a large and important Catholic church, given special ceremonial rights by the Pope, whatever its architectural plan. These are divided into four major basilicas, all of which are ancient churches located within Rome, and, as of 2017, 1,757 minor basilicas around the world; some Catholic basilicas are Catholic pilgrimage sites, receiving tens of millions of visitors per year. In December 2009 the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe set a new record with 6.1 million pilgrims during Friday and Saturday for the anniversary of Our Lady of Guadalupe. The Latin word basilica lit. "royal stoa" referring to the tribunal chamber of a king. In Rome the word was at first used to describe an ancient Roman public building where courts were held, as well as serving other official and public functions. To a large extent these were the town halls of ancient Roman life; the basilica was centrally located in every Roman town adjacent to the main forum. These buildings, an example of, the Basilica Ulpia, were rectangular, had a central nave and aisles with a raised platform and an apse at each of the two ends, adorned with a statue of the emperor, while the entrances were from the long sides.
By extension the name was applied to Christian churches which adopted the same basic plan and it continues to be used as an architectural term to describe such buildings, which form the majority of church buildings in Western Christianity, though the basilican building plan became less dominant in new buildings from the 20th century. The Roman basilica was a large public building; the first basilicas had no religious function at all. As early as the time of Augustus, a public basilica for transacting business had been part of any settlement that considered itself a city, used in the same way as the covered market houses of late medieval northern Europe, where the meeting room, for lack of urban space, was set above the arcades, however. Although their form was variable, basilicas contained interior colonnades that divided the space, giving aisles or arcaded spaces on one or both sides, with an apse at one end, where the magistrates sat on a raised dais; the central aisle tended to be wide and was higher than the flanking aisles, so that light could penetrate through the clerestory windows.
The oldest known basilica, the Basilica Porcia, was built in Rome in 184 BC by Cato the Elder during the time he was Censor. Other early examples include the basilica at Pompeii; the most splendid Roman basilica is the one begun for traditional purposes during the reign of the pagan emperor Maxentius and finished by Constantine I after 313 AD. Basilica Porcia: first basilica built in Rome, erected on the personal initiative and financing of the censor Marcus Porcius Cato as an official building for the tribunes of the plebs Aemilian Basilica, built by the censor Aemilius Lepidus in 179 BC Basilica Sempronia, built by the censor Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus in 169 BC Basilica Opimia, erected by the consul Lucius Opimius in 121 BC, at the same time that he restored the temple of Concord Julian Basilica dedicated in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and completed by Augustus 27 BC to 14 AD Basilica Argentaria, erected under Trajan, emperor from 98 AD to 117AD Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine In the Roman Imperial period, a basilica for large audiences became a feature in palaces.
In the 3rd century AD, the governing elite appeared less in the forums. They now tended to dominate their cities from opulent palaces and country villas, set a little apart from traditional centers of public life. Rather than retreats from public life, these residences were the forum made private. Seated in the tribune of his basilica, the great man would meet his dependent clientes early every morning. Constantine's basilica at Trier, the Aula Palatina, is still standing. A private basilica excavated at Bulla Regia, in the "House of the Hunt", dates from the first half of the 5th century, its reception or audience hall is a long rectangular nave-like space, flanked by dependent rooms that also open into one another, ending in a semi-circular apse, with matching transept spaces. Cluster
Rembrandt House Museum
The Rembrandt House Museum is a historic house and art museum in Amsterdam in the Netherlands. Painter Rembrandt lived and worked in the house between 1639 and 1656; the 17th-century interior has been reconstructed. The collection contains Rembrandt's paintings of his contemporaries; the museum had 237,383 visitors in 2014. The house is located in the Jodenbreestraat in Amsterdam, where Rembrandt lived and painted for a number of years, not far from the present-day city hall. Rembrandt purchased the house in 1639 and lived there until he went bankrupt in 1656, when all his belongings went on auction; the auction list enabled the reconstructions of all his belongings which are on display in the house. A few years ago the house was reconstructed on the inside to show how the house would have looked in Rembrandt's days. Adjoining the house is a modern building where work of Rembrandt is on display etchings and a part of his collection of objects from all over the world. Michael Huijser is the museum director and David de Witt is the curator.
Since 2008, the museum had around 200,000 visitors per year, with a record number of 237,383 visitors in 2014. Rembrandt House Museum, official website
A barrel vault known as a tunnel vault or a wagon vault, is an architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve along a given distance. The curves are circular in shape, lending a semi-cylindrical appearance to the total design; the barrel vault is the simplest form of a vault: a series of arches placed side by side. It is a form of barrel roof; as with all arch-based constructions, there is an outward thrust generated against the walls underneath a barrel vault. There are several mechanisms for absorbing this thrust. One is to make the walls exceedingly thick and strong - this is a primitive and sometimes unacceptable method. A more elegant method is to build two or more vaults parallel to each other; this method was most used in construction of churches, where several vaulted naves ran parallel down the length of the building. However, the outer walls of the outermost vault would still have to be quite strong or reinforced by buttressing; the third and most elegant mechanism to resist the lateral thrust was to create an intersection of two barrel vaults at right angles, thus forming a groin vault.
Barrel vaults are known from Ancient Egypt, were used extensively in Roman architecture. They were used to replace the Cloaca Maxima with a system of underground sewers. Other early barrel vault designs occur in northern Europe, Turkey and other regions. In medieval Europe, the barrel vault was an important element of stone construction in monasteries, tower houses and other structures; this form of design is observed in cellars, long hallways and great halls. Barrel vaulting was known and utilized by early civilizations, including Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. However, it was not a popular or common method of construction within these civilizations; the Persians and the Romans were the first to make significant architectural use of them. The technique evolved out of necessity to roof buildings with masonry elements such as bricks or stone blocks in areas where timber and wood were scarce; the earliest known example of a vault is a tunnel vault found under the Sumerian ziggurat at Nippur in Babylonia, ascribed to about 4000 BC, built of burnt bricks amalgamated with clay mortar.
The earliest tunnel vaults in Egypt are found at Requagnah and Denderah, from around 3500 BC in the predynastic era. These were built with sun-dried brick in three rings over passages descending to tombs: in these cases, as the span of the vault was only two metres. In these early instances, the barrel vault was chiefly used for underground structures such as drains and sewers, though several buildings of the great Late Egyptian mortuary palace-temple of Ramesseum were vaulted in this way. Recent archaeological evidence discovered at the Morgantina site shows that the aboveground barrel vault was known and used in Hellenistic Sicily in 3rd Century BC, indicating that the technique was known to Ancient Greeks. Ancient Romans most inherited their knowledge of barrel vaulting from Etruscans and the Near East. Persians and Romans were the first to use this building method extensively on large-scale projects and were the first to use scaffolding to aid them in construction of vaults spanning over widths greater than anything seen before.
However, Roman builders began to prefer the use of groin vault. After the fall of the Roman empire, few buildings large enough to require much in the way of vaulting were built for several centuries. In the early Romanesque period, a return to stone barrel vaults was seen for the first great cathedrals. One of the largest and most famous churches enclosed from above by a vast barrel vault was the church of Cluny Abbey, built between the 11th and 12th centuries. In 13th and 14th Century, with the advance of the new Gothic style, barrel vaulting became extinct in constructions of great Gothic cathedrals. However, with the coming of the Renaissance and the Baroque style, revived interest in art and architecture of antiquity, barrel vaulting was re-introduced on a grandiose scale, employed in the construction of many famous buildings and churches, such as Basilica di Sant'Andrea di Mantova by Leone Battista Alberti, San Giorgio Maggiore by Andrea Palladio, most glorious of all, St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, where a huge barrel vault spans the 27 m -wide nave.
With a barrel vault design the vectors of pressure result in a downward force on the crown while the lower portions of the arches realise a lateral force pushing outwards. As an outcome this form of design is subject to failure unless the sides are anchored or buttressed to heavy building elements or substantial earthwork sidings. For example, at Muchalls Castle in Scotland adjacent walls to the barrel vaulted chambers are up to 4,6 meters thick, adding the buttressing strength needed to secure the curved design; the inherent difficulty of adequately lighting barrel vaulted structures has been acknowledged. The intrinsic engineering issue is the need to avoid fenestration punctures in stonework barrel vaults; such openings could compromise the integrity of the en
The Jodenbreestraat is a street in the centre of Amsterdam, which connects the Sint Antoniesluis sluice gates to the Mr. Visserplein traffic circle. North of the sluice gates, the street continues on to Nieuwmarkt square as the Sint Antoniesbreestraat; the Mozes en Aäronkerk church stands at the southern end of the street. Directly behind the Jodenbreestraat is Waterlooplein square with its daily flea market. Philosopher Baruch Spinoza was born in a house that stood on the spot where the Mozes en Aäronkerk church now stands; the painter Rembrandt lived in what is now the Rembrandthuis museum from 1639 to 1656. Across from the museum is a sculpture bearing a poem by Jacob Israël de Haan; the street was part of the Sint Antoniesbreestraat. In the 17th century, many Jewish emigrants from Portugal and Spain settled in the neighbourhood, in the second half of the century, the southern section of the Sint Antoniesbreestraat came to be known as Jodenbreestraat; the street served as a marketplace until the late 19th century.
In 1893, the city government ordered the merchants to move their stalls to nearby Waterlooplein square. Rembrandt lived in this street from 1631 to 1635, at the home of art dealer Hendrick van Uylenburgh, again from 1639 to 1656, in his own house, built in 1606 and standing today, it now houses the Rembrandthuis museum. The street was popular with other artists, such as the painter Esaias Boursse, who lived next door to Rembrandt. During the German occupation of the Netherlands in World War II, most residents of Amsterdam's Jewish neighbourhood were deported to the concentration camps where they were murdered. After the war, the neighbourhood was left deserted. Many of the houses began to deteriorate and were torn down. In the 1960s, the city government unveiled plans to build a highway through the Jodenbreestraat, as well as a metro line underneath the street. To prepare for construction, Jodenbreestraat was widened by tearing down the remaining houses along the north side of the street. However, following heavy riots in 1975, the highway plans were abandoned.
Along the empty north side of the street, a huge new building arose in 1971, stretching the entire length of the street: the Burgemeester Tellegenhuis. Popularly known as the "Maupoleum", it was voted the ugliest building in Amsterdam, was torn down in 1994 and replaced with two large buildings which house, among others, offices for the Amsterdam School of the Arts and a store for supermarket chain Albert Heijn
Dutch famine of 1944–45
The Dutch famine of 1944–45, known in the Netherlands as the Hongerwinter, was a famine that took place in the German-occupied Netherlands in the densely populated western provinces north of the great rivers, during the winter of 1944–45, near the end of World War II. A German blockade cut off fuel shipments from farm towns; some 4.5 million were survived thanks to soup kitchens. Loe de Jong, author of The Kingdom of the Netherlands During World War II, estimated at least 22,000 deaths occurred due to the famine. Another author estimated 18,000 deaths from the famine. Most of the victims were elderly men; the famine was alleviated by the liberation of the provinces by the Allies in May 1945. Prior to that, bread baked from flour shipped in from Sweden, the airlift of food by the Royal Air Force, the Royal Canadian Air Force, the United States Army Air Forces – under an agreement with the Germans that if the Germans did not shoot at the mercy flights, the Allies would not bomb the German positions – helped to mitigate the famine.
These were Chowhound. Operation Faust trucked in food to the province. Towards the end of World War II, food supplies became scarce in the Netherlands. After the landing of the Allied Forces on D-Day, conditions grew bad in the Nazi-occupied Netherlands; the Allies were able to liberate the southern part of the country, but their liberation efforts came to an abrupt halt when Operation Market Garden, their attempt to gain control of the bridge across the Rhine at Arnhem, failed. The seizure of the approaches to the port of Antwerp was delayed due to Montgomery's preoccupation with Market Garden and trying to end the war quickly. After the national railways complied with the exiled Dutch government's appeal for a railway strike starting September 1944 to further the Allied liberation efforts, the German administration retaliated by placing an embargo on all food transports to the western Netherlands. By the time the embargo was lifted in early November 1944, allowing restricted food transports over water, the unusually early and harsh winter had set in.
The canals became impassable for barges. Food stocks in the cities in the western Netherlands ran out; the adult rations in cities such as Amsterdam dropped to below 1000 calories a day by the end of November 1944 and to 580 calories in the west by the end of February 1945. Over this Hongerwinter, a number of factors combined to cause starvation in the large cities in the West of the Netherlands; the winter in the month of January 1945 itself was unusually harsh prohibiting transport by boat for a month between early January 1945 and early February 1945. The German army destroyed docks and bridges to flood the country and impede the Allied advance. Thirdly, Allied bombing made it difficult to transport food in bulk, since Allied bombers could not distinguish German military and civilian shipments; as the south-eastern and the south-western part of the Netherlands became one of the main western battlefields, these conditions combined to make the transport of existing food stocks in large enough quantities nearly impossible.
The areas affected were home to 4.5 million people. Butter disappeared after October 1944, shortly after railway transport to the western parts of the Netherlands had stopped in September due to the railway strike; the supply of vegetable fats dwindled to a minuscule seven-month supply of 1.3 liters per person. At first 100 grams of cheese were allotted every two weeks; the bread ration had dropped from 2,200 to 1,800 and to 1,400 grams per week. It fell to 1,000 grams in October, by April 1945 to 400 grams a week. Together with one kilogram of potatoes, this formed the entire weekly ration; the black market ran out of food as well, with the gas and electricity and heat turned off, everyone was cold and hungry. In search of food, young strong people would walk for tens of kilometers to trade valuables for food at farms. Tulip bulbs and sugar beets were consumed. Furniture and houses were dismantled to provide fuel for heating. In the last months of 1944, in anticipation of the coming famine, tens of thousands of children were brought from the cities to rural areas where many remained until the end of the war.
Deaths in the three big cities of the Western Netherlands started in earnest in December 1944, reaching a peak in March 1945, but remained high in April and May 1945. In early summer 1945 the famine was brought under control. From September 1944 until May 1945 the deaths of 18,000 Dutch people were attributed to malnutrition as the primary cause and in many more as a contributing factor; the Dutch Famine ended with the liberation by the Allies of the western Netherlands in May 1945. Shortly before that, some relief had come from "Swedish bread", baked in the Netherlands from flour shipped in from Sweden. Shortly after these shipments, the German occupiers allowed coordinated air drops of food over German-occupied Dutch territory by the Royal Air Force and Royal Canadian Air Force from 29 April to 7 May, by the U. S. Army Air Forces from 1 to 8 May; the Germans agreed not to shoot at the planes flying the mercy missions, the Allies agreed not to bomb German positions. Operation Faust trucked in food to Rhenen beginning on 2 May, utilizing 200 vehicles.
Rhenen was occupied by the Germans The D
Marius Job "Job" Cohen is a retired Dutch member of the Labour Party. Cohen served as Mayor of Amsterdam from 2001 to 2010 and as Leader of the Labour Party from 2010 to 2012. Cohen is known as a consensus builder and mediator, as an advocate of social integration. Cohen, a jurist by occupation, worked as a researcher for the Leiden University from 1971 until 1981 and for the State University of Limburg from 1981 until 1983. Cohen became a professor of jurisprudence at the State University of Limburg in 1983 and was appointed as rector of the State University of Limburg in 1991. In 1993 Cohen was asked by the Labour Party to become Undersecretary for Education and Sciences in the Cabinet Lubbers III under Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers following the resignation of Roel in't Veld. Cohen accepted and resigned as rector and professor the same day he took office as the new Undersecretary for Education and Sciences on 2 July 1993. After the Dutch general election of 1994 Cohen was asked to become Minister of Education and Science in the Cabinet Kok I under Prime Minister Wim Kok but refused after his wife was diagnosed with Multiple sclerosis.
Cohen remained Undersecretary for Education and Sciences until the Cabinet Kok I was installed on 22 August 1994. He returned to the State University of Limburg as rector and as a professor of jurisprudence in 1995. For the Dutch Senate election of 1995 Cohen was elected as a Member of the Senate taking office on 13 June 1995. On 1 August 1996 Cohen was selected as the Parliamentary leader of the Labour Party in the Senate. After the Dutch general election of 1998 Cohen was asked to become Undersecretary for Justice in the Cabinet Kok II. Cohen accepted and resigned as the Parliamentary leader of the Labour Party in the Senate and as a Member of the Senate and as rector and professor the same day the Cabinet Kok II was installed on 3 August 1998. On 15 December 2000 Cohen was selected as Mayor of Amsterdam and resigned as Undersecretary for Justice on 1 January 2001 and took office as Mayor of Amsterdam on 15 January 2001. On 12 March 2010 the Leader of the Labour Party Wouter Bos unexpectedly announced his retirement from national politics and stood down as Leader of the Labour Party, Cohen announced his resignation as Mayor of Amsterdam the same day and was elected as the Leader of the Labour Party on 25 April 2010 and became the Lijsttrekker for the Dutch general election of 2010.
Following the election the Labour Party became the second largest party in the House of Representatives and Cohen was elected as the Parliamentary leader of the Labour Party in the House of Representatives and a Member of the House of Representatives on 17 June 2010. Cohen served as opposition leader against Prime Minister Mark Rutte and the Cabinet Rutte I. On 20 February 2012 after increasing criticism on his performance as opposition leader Cohen announced his retirement from national politics and stood down as Leader of the Labour Party and Parliamentary leader of the Labour Party in the House of Representatives that same day. Cohen remained a Member of the House of Representatives until 29 February 2012. Cohen semi-retired from active politics at the age of sixty-five and served as Chairman of the investigation committee for the Project X Haren-riots. Following the end of his active political career, Cohen occupied numerous seats on supervisory boards in several international non-governmental organizations.
Cohen has been the Chairman of the Social Affairs and Employment Trade association since 2013 and serves as professor of jurisprudence, public administration and political science at the Leiden University since 2014. Marius Job Cohen was born in Haarlem, he is the second child of Henriëtte "Hetty" Koster. His elder brother is Floris Cohen, his parents both became high school teachers of history. They were liberal Jews, were forced into hiding until the end of World War II, his paternal grandparents Hendrik Cohen and Flora Polak both died in Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in 1945. After the war, his father worked at the Dutch Institute for War Documentation, he became a professor of medieval history and a rector magnificus at Leiden University. His mother became a member of the city council of Heemstede, his parents were both early members of the Labour Party. Cohen attended public primary school in Heemstede, he attended the secondary school Stedelijk Gymnasium in Haarlem from 1960 to 1966. He studied Dutch public law at the University of Groningen from 1966 and obtained his Master of Laws degree in 1971.
During his student years, he was a member of the student association Vindicat atque Polit. Cohen married Lidie Lodeweges on 2 July 1972 in Groningen, she was a high school teacher. She needed a wheelchair. Cohen and his wife had son Jaap and daughter Lotje. Lidie Cohen died on 4 August 2015. Between 1 September 1971 and 1 September 1981, Job Cohen held a scientific position at the Bureau Research of Education at Leiden University, he obtained a doctorate from this university in June 1981, with a dissertation on the rights of university students. On 1 September 1981 he joined the State University of Limburg in a higher scientific capacity, was chairman of the commission that prepared the establishment of a faculty of law. On 1 September 1983 Cohen became professor of techniques at the faculty of law, he resigned from this position to become State Secr