SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Zweibrücken

Zweibrücken is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on the Schwarzbach river. The name Zweibrücken means'two bridges'. Older forms of the name include Middle High German Zweinbrücken, Latin Geminus Pons and Bipontum, French Deux-Ponts, all with the same meaning; the town was the capital of the former Imperial State of Palatinate-Zweibrücken owned by the House of Wittelsbach. The ducal castle is now occupied by the high court of the Palatinate. There is a fine Gothic Protestant church, Alexander's church, founded in 1493 and rebuilt in 1955. From the end of the 12th century, Zweibrücken was the seat of the County of Zweibrücken, the counts being descended from Henry I, youngest son of Simon I, Count of Saarbrücken; the line became extinct on the death of Count Eberhard II, who in 1385 had sold half his territory to the Count Palatine of the Rhine, held the other half as his feudal domain. Louis, son of Stephen, founded the line of the counts palatine of Zweibrücken. In 1533, the count palatine converted Palatinate-Zweibrücken to the new Protestant faith.

In 1559, a member of the line, Duke Wolfgang, founded the earliest grammar school in the town, which lasted until 1987. When Charles X Gustav, the son of John Casimir, Count Palatine of Kleeburg, succeeded his cousin, Queen Christina of Sweden, on the Swedish throne, Palatinate-Zweibrücken was in personal union with Sweden, a situation that lasted until 1718. Starting in 1680, Louis XIV's Chambers of Reunion awarded Zweibruecken and other localities to France, but under the 1697 Treaty of Rijswijk, "The Duchy of Zweibruecken was restored to the King of Sweden, as Count Palatine of the Rhine."In 1731, Palatinate-Zweibrücken passed to the Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Zweibrücken branch of the counts palatine, from where it came under the sway of Bavaria in 1799. It was occupied by France in 1793 and on 4 November 1797, Zweibrücken became a canton centre in department of Mont Tonnerre. At the Peace of Lunéville in 1801, the French annexation of Zweibrücken was confirmed; the town of Zweibrücken became part of the Palatine region of the Kingdom of Bavaria.

At the ducal printing office at Zweibrücken the fine series of the classical editions known as the Bipontine Editions was published. The last prominent social event before the First World War was the inauguration of the Rosengarten by Princess Hildegard of Bavaria in June 1914; as a consequence of the First World War, Zweibrücken was occupied by French troops between 1918 and 1930. In the course of the Kristallnacht in 1938, Zweibrücken's synagogue was destroyed. On the outbreak of the Second World War the town was evacuated in 1939-1940, as it lay in the ‘Red Zone’ on the fortified Siegfried Line. Shortly before the end of the war, on 14 March 1945, the town was nearly destroyed in an air raid by the Royal Canadian Air Force, with the loss of more than 200 lives. On 20 March, American ground troops reached Zweibrücken; the town became part of the new state of Rhineland-Palatinate after the war. In 1993, the town underwent a major change. With the departure of the Americans, the military area became free, which corresponded altogether to a third of the entire urban area.

Unemployment increased to 21%, leading to a decrease in demand in the retail trade of 25%. 1895–1904 Wolff 1905–1905 Freudenberg 1905–1932 Roesinger 1932–1945 Karl Ernst Collofong 1945–1959 Ignaz Roth 1959–1969 Oskar Munzinger 1969–1979 Helmut Fichtner 1980–1992 Werner von Blon 1993–1999 Hans Otto Streuber 1999–2004 Jürgen Lambert 2004–2012 Helmut Reichling 2012–2018 Kurt Pirmann since 2018 Marold Wosnitza Weaving and the manufacture of machinery, cigars, boots and soap were the chief industries before World War II. Nowadays Terex cranes and bulldozers and John Deere harvesting equipment are the chief industries; the Hochschule Kaiserslautern, one of the largest universities in the Rhineland-Palatinate, with more than 6,000 students is located in Zweibrücken. The city of Zweibrücken is represented at various cultural events by the Rose Queen, elected every two years; the Zweibrücken City Museum has a permanent exhibition in the former residence of court gardener Ernst August Bernhard Petri, documenting the eventful history of Zweibrücken.

In addition, special exhibitions take place e.g. on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the State Stud. The Bibliotheca Bipontina Zweibrücken is a scientific regional library in Zweibrücken, whose holdings go back to rescued parts of the ducal libraries and therefore houses valuable first editions from the 16th century, it is part of the Landesbibliothekszentrum Rheinland-Pfalz and one of the most important old holdings libraries in the state. The Bibliotheca Bipontina is housed in the building of the Helmholtz-Gymnasium Zweibrücken; the Zweibrücken City Library, which has existed since 1903, is housed in an adjoining building of the town hall and has a stock of around 50,000 volumes. Branches are the Rimschweiler branch. Schloss – Das Herzogschloss Zweibrücken – built in its present form in 1725 - is the largest Palatine secular building in the Baroque style of Nordic coinage, it was built in 1720-1725 by master builder Jonas Erikson Sundahl and is the former residence of t

Shirley Township, Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania

Shirley Township is a township in Huntingdon County, United States. The population was 2,524 at the 2010 census; the Runk Bridge and Lewis Smalley Homestead are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Shirley Township Municipal Building is located on Croghan Pike between Allenport and Shirleysburg. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 58.5 square miles, of which, 58.2 square miles of it is land and 0.3 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,526 people, 988 households, 728 families residing in the township; the population density was 43.4 people per square mile. There were 1,272 housing units at an average density of 21.8/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 98.50% White, 0.63% African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.48% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.71% of the population. There were 988 households, out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.4% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.3% were non-families.

22.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.91. In the township the population was spread out, with 23.6% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 27.0% from 25 to 44, 27.0% from 45 to 64, 15.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 97.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males. The median income for a household in the township was $31,366, the median income for a family was $36,386. Males had a median income of $30,662 versus $19,115 for females; the per capita income for the township was $15,757. About 8.3% of families and 13.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.2% of those under age 18 and 12.1% of those age 65 or over. Shirley township, Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania Detailed Profile at City-Data.com

1926 in architecture

The year 1926 in architecture involved some significant architectural events and new buildings. April–May – The German Zehner-Ring group of Modernist architects expands to become Der Ring. June 7 – While walking along the Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes in Barcelona, Antoni Gaudí is struck by a passing tram and knocked unconscious. Delays in receiving medical treatment contribute to his death in hospital a few days later. On June 12, after a funeral procession through the streets of Barcelona lined by thousands, he is buried in the crypt chapel of his unfinished church of Sagrada Família. November 27 – In Williamsburg, the restoration of Colonial Williamsburg begins. Undated British General Post Office K2 red telephone box, designed by Giles Gilbert Scott, is introduced, chiefly in the London area; the Frankfurt kitchen is designed by Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky for Ernst May's social housing project New Frankfurt in Frankfurt, Germany. The Russian avant-garde magazine SA is published for the first time.

Restoration of the Tudor Owlpen Manor in the Cotswolds of England by Norman Jewson is completed. May 13 – Hercilio Luz Bridge, Brazil, designed by Robinson & Steinman. September 13 – Clapham South, Tooting Bec, Tooting Broadway, Colliers Wood, South Wimbledon and Morden tube stations, designed by Charles Holden. November 11 – Northampton War Memorial, designed by Edwin Lutyens, unveiled in England. December 4 – Bauhaus Dessau building, designed by Walter Gropius, opened in Dessau, Germany. Dormition of the Theotokos Cathedral, Satu Mare, designed by Ioan Liteanu Mausoleum of Yugoslavian Soldiers in Olomouc, designed by Hubert Aust Sacred Heart Cathedral of Harbin, China Southwestern Bell Building, downtown St. Louis, Missouri, USA, designed by Mauran, Russell & Crowell with I. R. Timlin Sourdough Inn, Fort Yukon, Alaska, USA Remodeling of Twin Peaks, 102 Bedford Street, Greenwich Village, New York City, USA, by Clifford Reed Daily 900 Stewart Avenue, USA New Ways, 508 Wellingborough Road, England, designed by Peter Behrens, "a pioneer of modern architecture in Britain" Royal Gold MedalRagnar Ostberg.

Grand Prix de Rome, architecture: Jean-Baptiste Hourlier. 21 January – Roger Taillibert, French architect 22 April – James Stirling, British architect 18 July – Carlo Aymonino, Italian architect and urban planner 12 October – César Pelli, Argentine-born architect 10 June – Antoni Gaudí, Spanish architect, exponent of Catalan Modernism 7 July – Fyodor Schechtel, Russian architect, graphic artist and stage designer